Translation of the genetic code takes place by the coordination of ribosomes, mRNA, rRNA, tRNA amino acids and enzymes. The mRNA strand runs through a cluster of 7 or more activated ribosomes, forming polyribosomes. Meanwhile the aminoacids in the cytoplasm get activated and charged with energy. This is promoted by ATP.

The activated amino acids become chemi­cally bound with specific tRNA at its end under the action of an enzyme. This is called amino acid tRNA complex. Many such ‘Complexex’ are trans­ferred to the polyribosomes.

Each tRNA has a ‘binding site’ bearing triplet bases called the anticodons, which are complimentary to specific triplet codon, on the RNA. Chemical binding occurs between the complimentary codon of mRNA and anticodon of different tRNA complexes.

As the ‘b i n d i n g’ goes on, the amino acids carried by each tRNA link with one another forming a peptide chain of protein molecule. By the time the mRNA passes off the last ribosome of the polyribosome, the mRNA and peptide chain of protein are relased under the action of R1 and R2 factors. The ribosome and tRNAs are also released.