Scientific Method of Teaching Science
This method is also known as Problem Solving Method, as through this method, various kinds of problems are being sort out in scientific manner or scientifically. It is an important method of discovering learning which is required to discourage the traditional methods of teaching.
In this method, solution of any problem is found out by discovering various facts, because of which it is considered by majority of experts to be an authentic investigatory solution seeking method. Solutions provided by this method cannot be published in text books or any journal.
Through this method, a teacher raises a problem in the minds of students in such a manner that a purposeful and reflective thinking gets arouse in their mind with the help of which they arrive at a rational and logical solution of the problem.
It is important for students as well as to teacher to understand that teaching science is not merely to acquire or to provide information relating to scientific facts and concepts. Methods of discovery learning involve students in exploration, questioning, problem solving and labelling processes.
By adopting a guided approach to discovery learning can bring about considerable reduction in errors and time required for the process. To find out solution of any problem, some specific steps are followed by the students. Thorough information of all the steps followed to solve the problem should be provided to all the students and teacher involved.
Some prominent experts have defined scientific method of teaching in their own way views of some of the experts are as follows:
i. In accordance with Ausubel Scientific method involves concept formation and discovery of learning procedures.
ii. In accordance with Risk Scientific method can be defined those processes through which problems of different kinds are being raised in the minds of students in such a manner that purposeful and reflective thinking got developed in them by which they can arrive at rationed solution of the problems.
In scientific method of teaching, steps which are generally taken by the students and teacher to solve out a problem are as follows:
a. In the first step, problem is being identified by the students. Then teacher provide them with various kinds of assistance and help with which they define the problem in precise and clear terms.
b. After understanding the problem, various sources are used through which important information and data pertaining to problem are being gathered.
c. On the basis of gathered information, hypothesis is designed and after proper analysis, most appropriate kind of hypothesis is being accepted.
d. By accepted hypothesis, results are drawn through various methods. Drawn results are further put to investigation, as a result of which most final conclusions are drawn.
Here the steps which are taken in the this method have been discussed in brief as they have been dealt at length in other chapter in which concept of scientific methods have been discussed.
An important point which one should keep in mind is that this method should be used for teaching purpose if one is intended to develop those skills in the students by which they can solve out various problems arising in their life. For instigating thought processes, it is very important to select an appropriate kind of problem properly.
While selecting problem for students, a teacher should keep in mind some of the important facts into mind. The first thing which should be provided proper consideration is that problem should be stated in clear terms. Simple language should be employed by the teacher so that all the students can understand it properly.
While doing this, difficult terms should be employed to little extent, as it can lead to confusion among the students. While selecting problem for the students, it is necessary for the teacher to keep into consideration the physical and mental capabilities of the students.
If students will be provided with such problem to which they are unable to solve then they will be discouraged to make use of this method and will find. Whole process of problem solving boresome and difficult.
Students will also feel boresome if they will be provided with same kind of problem again and again. For this reason, teacher should try to provide them with new problems every time. Teachers should not only provide new problems to them but all the basic information should be provided to the students by which they can solve out the given problem properly.
Such kind of problem should be designed or selected by the teacher to which all the students can understand, as without understanding problem properly, they cannot take any step in solving it out. Problem should be of such type by which students find it easy to set up hypothesis properly and to test the gathered information or data properly.