Essay on Religious and Social Reform Movements in India


During the 19th Century, the cultural revival began in India and the credit to its goes to Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born on 22nd May, 1772 in Bengal. From the very beginning he opposed the idol worship. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was great scholar and studied many languages. He intensively studied the Christianity and other religions and arrived at a conclusion that there was a need to reform Hindu Society.

He founded the Brahmo Samaj in 1828. Its main aim was to reform Hindu society. He tried to elevate the status of women. He was in favour of female education. He supported widow-remarriage, and was against child marriage and caste system. He was in favour of English education in order to get rid of many ills prevalent in the society. He founded Hindu College in Calcutta.

He was in favour of freedom of press. He wanted the separation of judiciary from executive. He raised his demand for appointment of Indians to higher posts. He was a supporter of internationalism. He was in favour of liberty, equality and republic. He acted as a link between India’s past and future.


Debandra Nath Tagore carried the work of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. He started Tattvabodhini Patrika and Pathsala to check the growing activities of Christianity. Under his leadership, the Brahmo Samaj became a strong defender of Hindu dharma. He was also a great social reformer. Kesheb Chandra Sen was a third prominent leader of Brahmo Samaj. Under his leadership, the Brahmo Samaj made much progress.

He was inspired by Jesus Christ and Saint Paul. In 1866, the Brahmo Samaj was divided into Brahmo Samaj and Adi Brahmo Samaj. Kesheb Chandra Sen put himself in the social activities. He opposed caste system, child marriage and favoured female education, widow-remarriages etc.

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