Common Afghanistani may treat themselves most unfortu­nate people for they are caught in the whirlpool of one war after another battered by one drought after another and became the easy pawn in the chess game being played by Countries, earlier the Soviet Union and now the Britain, USA.

The bigoted rulers of Taliban regime, had withdrawn all fundamental rights of the people and put the country into a state of medieval barbarism and made it a safe have for the terrorists.

The suicidal terrorist attack in the USA in Sept 2001, at the behest of Osamabin Laden and his ilk forced the United States to initiate action against Afghanistan. The attack of USA on the Taliban with all its deadly weapons added more miseries and destructions to the Afghanis. Lacs of Afghans took shelter in neighboring Pakistan, hundreds of Afghanis were killed in the US air strikes and the ground war during the attack. The defeat of Taliban was greeted with spontaneous exultations of common people in Afghanistan and it made the people fairly hope that things would improve but there couldn’t be worse nightmare than Talibans. Meanwhile with the falling of Kandhar Osamabin Laden took shelter at some unknown place, an agreement was signed at Bonn in Germany by delegations representing four rival Afghan factions in early Dec. 2001 providing the war torn country with an opportunity to take on new life. As per the agreement a 29 member interim administration would rule for six months when a special independent commiission will convene Loya Jirga, the traditional assembly to elect a transitional government to rule for about two years until a constitution is drawn up and elections are held. The agreement allowed a Pashtun leader to occupy the post of Prime Minister and 11 seats out of 29, to this ethnic group in the provisional executive government.

Mr. Hamid Karzia was chosen the head of the interim government. He is an Afghan aristocrat and a leader of the powerful Popalzai clan, one of the four main tribes of he pashtun ethnic group, that dominates Southern Afghanistan. Mr. Karzai command due respect in his clan and regarded as a leader of new generation. His father Abdullah Ahad Karzai sered for several years in the Afghan parliament as a close associate of the royal family. Mr. Abdullah Ahad Karzai was killed by Taliban soldiers in 1999 in Quetta where he had been mobilizing support for Loya Jirgato challenge Taliban rule. Mr. Hamid Karzai, also slipped into Afghanistan in early Oct. 2001 on a mission to woo some Taliban moderates and tribal leaders, was rescued by a US helicopter while many of his associates were killed by the Taliban militant.


On June 10, 2002 the Loya Jirga, the traditional Afghan assembly was convened to decide on the formation of the Transitional Authority to rule the country for a period of two years. In recognition of King Zahir Shah was invited to chair the inaugural session of the Loya Jirga. The presence of the king is expected to overt clashes that have been seen during Loya Jirga earlier.

A new constitution was unveiled in Kabul on Nov. 3, 2003 for Afghanistan. Afghanistan would henceforth be known as Islamic Republic and religion of Afghanistan would be sacred religion of Islam, followers of other religion are free to perform their religious ceremonies within the limits of the law of the land. The Constitution provides for the post of President and Vice President and two houses of Congress. The draft provides for political parties, whose charter do not contradict the principles of Islam. It also recognizes Pashto and Dari as the official languages, but with a provision the National song to be sung in Pashto alone. The draft prohibits any kind of discrimination and privilege between the citizens of Afghanistan. The citizens of Afghanistan will enjoy equal rights and duties before the law.

The Constitution enshrines King Mohammed Zaheer Shah, 88 years,”Father of the Nation” but he will not have any official political role and this title will not be passed on to his heirs.

The Constitution paved the way of democratic government in the country and an atmosphere of peace, prosperity and security is hoped to prevail in the country.


Afghanistan reflects most depressing social milieu. The social indicators presents a barren picture with literacy rate 36% only and merely 13% of the population has access to safe drinking water. Merely 12% of the population has sanitation facilities, life expectancy just 43 years and child mortality rate 25 of every 1000 children, fourth highest in the world. The maternal mortality rate is the second highest in the world, 17 out of 1000 mothers dies in child birth and approximately 16000 mothers die every year. The level of malnutrition is as high as 70%. The women of Afghanistan form 60% of the population and acknowledged by the international community as the most depressed women in the world. The women were the most harassed and victimized entity during the reign of Taliban.

The present situation of Afghanistan demands an efficient administration to revive its badly shattered economy, rehabilitation of the millions of refugees camping in Pakistan and Iran. For the progress and prosperity to prevail, the foremost requirement is peace in the country. Several militant groups still putting resistance and cause many incidences of violence, murders, killings and destruction of property in the country. All this required to be stopped, so that the humanitarian aid agencies, can resume the process of rehabilitation.

It was the time when new constitution was taking place, every faction in Afghanistan must realize that any attempt by any of the factions and militant groups would again put the country in turmoil and all the sacrifices and hardships faced by the country will result in civil war. The elections due in June 2004, had given a chance to each group to assertion if through democratic process. All the militants and ethnic group must exercise utmost patient work together, keeping aside their own interests for the development and progress of the country.

India as well as other developing and developed nations have volunteered to offer generous assistance in the rebuilding and reconstruction of Afghanistan. India could help in a wide range of sectors like building up a sound management system, police force,medical, educational institutions and administration of basic necessities to the general mass.


The USA has well realized and learnt a never forgettable lesson and has paid through the loss of WTO for nurturing terrorists like Osama. Now USA has waged war against terrorism any where in the world for the fear of its own vulnerability to terrorists strikes any time, anywhere. The new rulers of Afghanistan, the existing warring groups or the militia must realize that they can’t get anything permanently through violence. For the progress and growth of economy, stability and peace is the first requirements. The adoption of Constitution and beginning of election process paved the way now it is the citizens of Afghanistan to choose the rulers of their choice who could give them safe, security, stability, progress, prosperity and peace.