1385 words essay on Communism

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‘Communism’ has been far more influential a force of late, than any other politico-economic doctrine which has moved humanity in the quest of a new social order. It promises efficient production and equitable distribution, ensuring economic self-sufficiency to all, and a feeling of fraternity between man and man.

The political philosophy of communism was developed by Karl Marx, in collaboration with his friend, Frederick Engels. Marxian communism was further developed by V. I. Lenin, the founder of the communist regime in Russia. Lenin put into operation the fundamental principles of Marxian communism and thereby demonstrated that the socialist idea is not a Utopian theory but is politically practicable and realisable.

Marx is the founder, Engles the architect and Lenin is the builder of communism through revolution. In consolidating Sovietism of Marx, Lenin’s contribution has also to be recognised.

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Communism is the extreme and violent form of revolutionary socialism. For a proper understanding of the communist doctrine, it is necessary to grasp the basic principles of Marxian doctrine which are —(1) materialistic conception and interpretation of history; (2) the labour theory of (surplus) value (3) the law of concentration of capital; and (4) class war.

Marx interpreted all historical movements in terms of the material conditions of life. The appropriation of land and other means of production for private use and profit has all through history divided society sharply into two hostile; lasses. Just as in the past the interests of the serf or landless slave peasant were opposed to those of his feudal lord, so also in the present industrial age, the interests of the capitalist class and those of the factory workers are opposed to each other. This provides thesis and anti-thesis.

The propertied class with all the means of production at their command, buys the services of the penniless working class which depends for its livelihood upon its sale of labour power. Labour, according to Marx, is the sole generator of value and what is called profit accrues to the capitalist employer simply by the process of depriving and exploiting labourers of the full value of their labour.

As the volume of production increases and its technique becomes more complex, the tendency to concentra­tion and monopolisation of capital in a few lands and management develops. The result is that the profit of capitalist owner increases while the condition of the workers deteriorates proportionately. It is like the generation of positive and negative energy in the dynamo at two ends at the same time. The history of mankind is the history of this deprivation. At one stage, things become unbearable and the system bursts.

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In fact, in Nature it has been found that after the process of evolution there comes a stage when the tegument of the tree bursts; this follows leap or jump, like water becoming steam at 100-degree heat a qualitative change. This is known as Dialectical Materialism that advocates complete change at times.

But the capitalistic system of production, according to Marx, carries, embedded in itself, its own seed or destruction. The growth of large-scale production leads to the extinction of small-scale producers who, unable to compete with their large-scale rivals, are ultimately driven to swell the rank of ordinary workers. The independent artisan becomes a wage earner, and the number of disgruntled proletariat increases. Secondly, the localisation of indus­tries in particular areas, to ensure economical production, bring thousands of workers together; these develop a strong group-consciousness by mutual contacts, and try to assert and protect their rights and interests against, their employers. This is how trade Unions originate and acquire power.

At the same time, by keeping down wages, the capitalists unconsciously cause a shrinkage of their home-market and they have to finance and organise their sale of goods in foreign markets. Thus, Marx’s slogan is — “workers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains.” It naturally acquires a rev ‘utionery potency and significance.

Unemployment’s, trade cycles, strikes, periodical financial crises—these are the natural and inevitable consequences of the capital­istic order of society. The constant endeavour of the capitalist class to keep down wages arouses workers to organised resistance. There also starts infighting among the capitalists for class of individual interests. This is known as the inner class contradiction among the bourgeoisie. This ultimately may explode in the form of on open revolution to overthrow the capitalist order and seize the machinery of the State. This will be immediately followed by the expropriation of the means of production by the proletariat from private hands. The Communists then hold power.

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The consummation of a proletarian revolution results in the abolition of classes and all forms of exploitation of man-by-man. Then follows a period of Dictatorship of the Proletariat, as a prelude to the establishment of a classless society. In the former Soviet Union this dictatorship of the proletariat regime, through military help, continued for more than 75 years before it broke down after the operation of perestoika and glassnost of Gorbachov.

Closely following Marx, Lenin, the maker of modern Russia, states that the attainment of full communism involves two stages, viz, (1) the Revolutionary stage (2) the post-Revolutionary stage. The first phase of the Revolution is characterised by the forcible capture of political power by the proletariat, and its subsequent employment to squeeze out from society the last remnants of capitalism. At this stage, the State assumes the character of a class-state; the proletariat adopts a policy, of gradual extension of public ownership by confiscating and appropriating private ownership.

No special privilege is allowed and everybody is made to work in accordance with the principle—’He who does not work neither shall he eat’. Everybody is to work according to his ability and everybody gets back according to his work and finally according to his need.

The Communists, however, believe that with the gradual elimination of the last remnants of capitalism, a new order of society will emerge when everybody will be inspired by a sense of social responsibility so that each will do his best for the good of the whole community and there will be no necessary for state compulsion. In this stage, all the productive forces of the State will be fully developed and everybody will get the primary needs of life—food, clothing, shelter, medical help, leisure, etc—according to his need. This is the final transition from each according to his capacity, to each according to his need.

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Advent of this stage marks the final triumph of Communism when the State will no more be considered a necessity. The State, therefore, will wither away. Thus, according to the communists, the overthrow of Capitalism by itself cannot create Communism.

For the attainment of full Communism, consciousness and intelligent efforts have to be made, Communists and Anarchists agree in so far as they regard the abolition of the State as their ultimate aim, but Com­munists differ from the Anarchists in this that they do not press for the immediate abolition of the State as the Anarchists do.

The Communists argue that with the gradual perfection of the individual through communistic organisation of society, ‘the State will wither away’ in the natural process. Communism differs from Socialism in this that while Socialism seeks to establish only State ownership of the means of production and equitable distribution, Communism advocates common ownership of all things, and hence it seeks to abolish all forms of private property and exploitation. No body should be allowed to enjoy unearned income. The aim of Communism is to build up a classless society in which every man will get adequate opportunities for self-development and self-expression. Thus, it seeks to prevent the exploitation of man by man and ensures economic freedom to all workers.

Whether Communism in the sense of a classless society but without the need of State coercion will ever be achieved, remains controversial until it is achieved. Some resolute experiments have failed. But the movement as a political force has immensely accel­erated social progress and brought about a thorough-going change in the conception of the function of government. Governments have to countenance measures to improve the wages and conditions of worker to control unlimited profiteering. The welfare of the workers, and of the community as a whole, is no longer ignored as being outside the sphere of the State.

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