As people/humans progressed, they needed to communicate faster with other people across the world. Through the years, they have been continuously experimenting, finally arriving at a device called the computer. Information can be sent or accessed instantaneously through this machine via the Internet.

Since the development of the first electronic computer in 1943 by Dr. Alan M. Turner, the science and method of communication has undergone a sea change. With globalization and the need to communicate instantaneously, the computer has become indispensable. What was initial­ly used for merely calculating is now used for multifarious purposes.

Computers help people develop and test scientific theories. A theory is a proposed explanation for how or why something happens. Theories, like known relationships, are often expressed as equations.

Some equations are so complicated or time-consuming to solve that it would be impossible to develop the theory without the help of computers. Computers are particu­larly useful in developing and evaluating theories about things that are dif­ficult to observe and measure.


People have used calculating devices since ancient times. The first elec­tronic digital computer, built in 1946, filled a huge room. Since then, rapid advances in computer technology have led to the development of smaller, more powerful and less expensive computers.

In addition to digital computers, there are two other general types of computers: analog computers and hybrid computers. Analog computers work directly with a physical quantity, such as weight or speed, rather than with digits that represent the quantity. Such computers solve problems by measuring a quantity, such as temperature, in terms of another quantity, such as the length of a thin line of liquid in a thermometer.

Hybrid com­puters combine the features of analog and digital computers. They have many of their parts are same as that of an analog computer. But like digital computers, they process data by manipulating numbers.

People can think about problems and figure out how to solve them. But computers cannot think. A person must tell the computer in very simple terms exactly what to do with the data it receives. A list of instructions for a computer to follow is called a programmer.


A computer programmer is nothing but a set of specific instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what operations to perform.

For example, an astronomer can use the problem-solving ability of com­puters to develop theories about how galaxies are formed. First, the astronomer proposes a set of equations about a group of stars. A computer performs the calculations needed to solve the equations.

The astronomer can then use the solutions to predict the shape of the galaxy that the stars should form if the theory is correct. To test the theory, the astronomer can observe a real galaxy to see if it has the predicted shape. If the galaxy’s shape agrees with the theory, the astronomer becomes more convinced that the theory is correct.

In economics and finance, computers solve equations to make predic­tions about money. Many of the equations that economists and business people use to make long-range predictions are extremely complicated and not understandable to the user—words or pictures, for example.


Some of the most widely used computer programmer help people and businesses figure out their taxes, create budgets, and calculate the value of their investments. This not only saves time, but is also more reliable as it is more accurate.

Storing and retrieving information

People use computers to store unbelievably large quantities of information. Information stored in a computer is sometimes called a database. Databases can be enormous—for example, a nation’s entire census might be contained in a single database. A computer can search a huge database quickly to find a specific piece of information. In addition, the information can be changed easily and quickly—often in less than a second.

The efficiency with which computers store and retrieve information makes them valuable in a wide range of professions. For example, scientists use computers to store and quickly find results of experiments. Libraries use computer catalogues to hold information about their collections. Hospitals use computers to maintain records about their patients. Governments store election returns and census information on computers.


All kinds of businesses rely on computers to store large quantities of information about their employees, customers, and products. Computers also allow markets for stocks, bonds, currency, and other investments to keep track of current prices around the world.

Today, the computer has entered classrooms, operation theatres, libraries. It will shortly send the post office to the archives. Such a vast store-house of information, through the Internet one can get instantaneous and correct information on any topic under the sun.

Virtual classrooms, a dream of yesterday, have become a reality today, thanks to the computer.