Cyber crime is the new breed of crime, which is either perpetrated using computers, or is otherwise related to them. Its origin can be traced to the growing dependence on computers in modern life. Cyber crime has assumed sinister implications today as everything from microwave ovens and refrigerators to nuclear power plants is being run on computers.

Today, the world is moving towards a point where everything from banking stock exchanges, are traffic control, telephones to electric power, health care, welfare and education depends on software. This exponential growth, and the increase in the capacity and accessibility of computers coupled with the decrease in cost, has brought about revolutionary changes in every aspect of human civilization, including crime.

As a result, the increased capacities of information systems today come at the cost of increased vu Inerrability. Information technology has begun to produce criminal opportunities of a variety that the brightest criminals of yore could not even begin to dream about.

A cyber crime may be theft o ~f information services, communications in furtherance of criminal conspiracies, telecommunications piracy, electronic money laundering, electronic vandalism and terrorism, sales and investment fraud, illegal interception of telecommunications, and electronic funds transfer fraud. The precedent for theft of information services was set by the ‘phone breakers’ more than three decades ago for what has become a major criminal industry. In this method of crime, the perpetrators gain access to the PBX board of an organization, and make their own calls or sell call time to third parties.


The advent of information technology has enhanced the activities the right middleware, a cloud computing system could execute all the programs a normal computer could run. Potentially, everything from generic word processing software to customized computer programs designed for a specific company could work on a cloud computing system.

It is a good idea to rely on another computer system to run programs and store data as it would enable clients to access their applications and data from anywhere at any time. They could access the cloud computing system using any computer linked to the Internet. Data would not be confined to a hard drive on one user’s computer or even a corporation’s internal network. Also, it could bring hardware costs down as the client would not need to buy the fastest computer with the most memory, because the cloud system would take care of the rest.

Instead, a client could buy an inexpensive computer terminal with a monitor, a keyboard and mouse and just enough processing power to run the middleware necessary to connect to the cloud system.

If the cloud computing system’s back end is a grid computing system, then the client could take advantage of the entire network’s processing power. Often, scientists and researchers work with calculations so complex that it would take years for individual computers to complete them. On a grid computing system, the client could send the calculation to the cloud for processing. The cloud system would tap into the processing power of all available computers on the back end, significantly speeding up the calculation.


While the benefits of cloud computing seem convincing, security and privacy are perhaps its biggest concerns. The idea of handing over important data to another company worries some people. Corporate executives might hesitate to take advantage of a cloud computing system because it would not allow them to keep their company’s information under lock and key.

The counterargument to this position is that the companies offering cloud computing services live and die by their reputations. It benefits these companies to have reliable security measures in place. Otherwise, the service would lose all its clients. Hence, it’s in their interest to employ the most advanced techniques to protect their clients’ data.

Cloud computing companies will need to find ways to protect client privacy. One way is to use authentication techniques such as user names and passwords. Another is to employ an authorization format whereby each user can access only the data and applications relevant to his or her job. Then there are a few standard hacker tricks that could cause

In a cloud computing system, there is a significant workload shift. Instead of local computers, the network of computers that make up the cloud do all the heavy lifting when it comes to running applications. This results in decrease of hardware and software demands on the user’s side. The only thing the user’s computer needs to be able to run is the cloud computing systems interface software, which can be as simple as a Web browser, and the cloud’s network takes care of the rest.


Web- based e-mail service like Hotmail, Yahoo! Mail or Gmail do not run an e-mail program on your computer, you log in to a Web e-mail account remotely. The software and storage for your account does not exist on your computer but on the service’s computer cloud.

Although cloud computing is an emerging field, the idea has been around for a few years. It is called cloud computing because the data and applications exist on a ‘cloud’ of Web servers. A cloud computing system can be divided into two sections: the front end and the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet. The front end is the side the computer user, or client, sees. It includes the client’s computer (or computer network) and the application required to access the cloud computing system.

The back end is the ‘cloud’ section of the system. Various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the ‘cloud’ of computing services are present here. In theory, a cloud computing system could include practically any computer program you can imagine, from data processing to video games. Usually, each application will have its own dedicated server.

A central server administers the system, monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. It follows a set of rules called protocols and uses a special kind of software called middleware. Middleware allows networked computers to communicate with each other.


If a cloud computing company has a lot of clients, there is likely to be a high demand for a lot of storage space. Some companies require hundreds of digital storage devices. Cloud computing systems need at least twice the number of storage devices it requires to keep all its clients’ information stored. That is because these devices, like all computers, occasionally break down.

A cloud computing system must make a copy of all its clients’ information and store it on other devices. The copies enable the central server to access backup machines to retrieve data that otherwise would be unreachable. Making copies of data as a backup is called redundancy.

The applications of cloud computing are practically limitless. With the orientation of the craft in space. The first star sensor packed up on April 26, and even the back-up sensor failed during the second week of May.

Moon/Space mission failures are not unusual for countries and organizations. Chandrayaan-1 will act as a great motivator for planning of Chandrayaan-2. India has joined the United States, the former Soviet Union and the European Space Agency comprising 17 countries who already have their flags on the moon.


ISRO) is planning second moon mission Chandrayaan-2 in 2013. Russia’s Federal Space Agency (Roskosmos) is joining with ISRO for development of Chandrayaan-2 Lander/Rover. Chandrayaan-2 will consist of the spacecraft and a landing platform with the moon rover. The rover would move on wheels on the lunar surface, pick up samples of soil or rocks, do a chemical analysis and send the data to the spacecraft orbiting above.

The rover will weigh between 30 kg and 100 kg, depending on whether it is to do a semi-hard landing or soft landing. The rover will have an operating life-span of a month. It will run predominantly on solar power.