A society can be examined from the point of view of its structure, organisation and process. Analytically each constitutes a distinct domain. These are related concepts. Unless analytically and empirically structure, organization and process are separated the function of structure cannot be understood. Each person stimulates another person or even a group and also responds to the stimuli from other persons and groups. Social life is not possible without diadic, triadic and multiplex interactions within a society.
There are, interpersonal relations, inter group relation and inter institutional relations in a society. Therefore, communication is fundamental to social life. Communication is the interaction in terms of stimulus-gesture, a word or a phrase which one person produces in response to another stimulus-gesture, a word or a phrase from the other.
Social structure is expected for ideal network of relationships between persons and groups. Social structure is a model of durable, repetitive and exchangeable social relationships. In order to operationalize the structure activities are organized, materials are handled and needs of persons and groups are fulfilled. Organization of people, activities and interrelationships are ranged which involve time. The concept of social process involves time because material resources are allocated, responsibilities are assigned and needs are fulfilled. Fulfillment of needs lead to realization of satisfaction. Every person in the society is vested with the power to take decision.
Decision- making may be an individual affair or group affair, and when it is a collective affair more time and resources are involved. Through organization and decision-making required type of social change is realized. Thus, the concept of structure indicates an ordered arrangement of parts. The parts themselves vary, but the structure is persistent. The interactions of processes are accomplished within the persistent and repetitive framework of a given social structure. The advantage of the concept of structure is that it helps in the analysis of social events at a given point of time. Every social system consists of the social structure and the totality of social usages. The social system may have its origin and growth which may be analyzed within the bounds of time and space
Concept of social process deals with social change. A structure may change over a period of time. A structure is a natural repetitive system. It maintains its continuity despite internal changes from time to time just as a living organism remains the same living organism in spite of metabolic changes: The structure is dynamic. In studying structure, we study essentially the interrelation of arrangements of parts in some total entity. The components of social structure are the human beings; the structure here is the arrangement of persons in relationships which are institutionally defined and regulated. According to Nadel, social structure is a conceptual tool, which is an abstraction indicating the network of relationships between the persons who have different roles to play.
The basic social data consists of interactions among persons. The term ‘role’ is used to refer to the regular repetition of interactions over a period of time. The persons play the roles may change from time to time. But the roles would be fairly constant. According to Smelser, social structure can be defined as identifiable patterns of roles that are organized primarily around the fulfillment of some social functions or activities. Thus, the main ingredients of social life are the interactions between persons who are in role-relations to one another and whose interactions are governed by social sanctions, norms and values.