In 1992, in Rio – de – Janerio, the largest international gathering took place which brought 108 heads of State and Government at one place where they endorsed Agenda 21, the action plan for sustainable development. This summit was called as the Earth Summit. The year 2002 Earth Summit was held in South Africa in Johannesburg from 26th August to 4th September to pursue new initiate to implement sustainable development and build a future of prosperity and security for their citizens. These summits encompass everything associated with human well beings.


(i) At the International Conference on financing for development, governments reaffirmed their commitment towards sustainable development and donor countries promised to give $ 30 billion by 2006.

(ii) The UN Convention on biological diversity opened for signature at 1992 Earth Summit and since ratified by 183 nations, entered into force in Dec. 1993. The convention obligate countries to protect plant and animal species through habitat preservations and other means.


(iii) Basal convenstion on hazardous waste, which regulates movements of toxic waste from one country to other is administered by UNEP (United National Environment Programme) and, till now, has been ratified by 121 countires. In 1995, the convention out-law the export of toxic waste from development to developing country which do not have enough technology for their disposal.

(iv) At Earth summit, it was decided to help the countries situated on small islands, as they are isolated and vulnerable to many development constraints, climate change and natural disaster. Subsequently, in 1994, a UN Conference was held in Barbados, to address their special concern.

(v) Decision to build up forest was taken at Rio Summit and to formulate the plan, and inter-governmental panel on forest met – for 2 years under the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. They come out with over 100 actions plans in March 1997. Starting with its first session in 2001, the UN Forum on forest has focused on proposal to limit deforestation and generate more resources for the foresting sector.

(vi) In 1997 in Kyoto, government agreed on a protocol by which industrialized countries would accept to reduce their emission of 6 greenhouse gases by an average of 5% below 1990 level by 2008-2012.


(vii) The Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety, to reduce the risk of trans-boundary movement of living modified organism and ensure safe use of modern technologies was adopted in Jan. 2000.