Pollution is a world problem. Today, whatever littte oxygen we inhale, is polluted. No doubt, most of our progress and development is the result of industrial growth and technological advancement of which we feel proud. But it has its evil effect too i.e. pollution.
By pollution we mean to destroy the purity of a thing. It is generally used for natural environment i.e. land, water, air. Pollution makes the environment unfit for living. It becomes a health hazard. It brings many diseases; hence it must be checked soon.
Land pollution is caused due to dumping and disposal of wastes, application of agro-chemicals in the soil. Deforestation also leads to land pollution. Hence it is necessary to start tree plantation as a social service and national programme. It is the only way which can save humanity.
In India, wastes of oil, refineries and atomic plants are dumped into the rivers or seas which pose serious threat to the health of the people living in its surrounding areas or far away. Consequently, fresh water resources are depleting very fast and water-borne diseases are on the increase.
Air pollution is one of the major ecological problems man is facing today. It is the most dangerous form of pollution because we cannot control the air we breathe. Air pollution is prominent in the big cities like Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Kanpur, etc. where the smoke is emitted from the chimneys of mills, kilns and factories and diesel smoke from buses, cars, aeroplanes, motor-cars and scooters. Thus, air becomes polluted and we are bound to enhale such polluted air.
Noise pollution is no less dangerous. The problem with noise is not only that it is unwanted, but also that it negatively affects human health and well-being. Problems related to noise include hearing loss, stress, high blood-pressure, sleep loss, distraction and lost productivity and a general reduction in the quality of life and opportunities for tranquility.
Water pollution has caused many health problems. It has many sources. The most polluting of them are the city sewage and industrial waste discharged into the river. The facilities to treat wastewater are not adequate in the city in India. Presently only about 10% of the wastewater generated are treated. The rest is discharge as it is into our water bodies.
Due to this, pollutants enter groundwater, rivers and other waterbodies. Such contaminated water is used in our households. As a result we come in the grip of number of diseases. Agricultural run off rivers is another major water pollutant as it contains fertilizers and pesticides.
Pollution of any type is the greatest threat to our life because it causes many fatal diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, tuberculosis, asthama and even cancer. Hence pollution control measures must be used.
Deforestation should be totally stopped. Various measures may be adopted to control pollution. To trap smoke particles chambers should be made. Lofty smoke stakes should be built. Gases should be discharged through exhaust pipes higher in the air. Chemical industries should not be allowed to be set up on the banks of rivers.
Waste materials should be subjected to anti-pollution treatment. Noise pollution must be made a punishable offence. Growing population on a fast rate is also responsible for the problem of pollution. Hence it must be controlled by spreading awareness among common people. Pollution is harmful for all and therefore joint effort should be made to sweep away all kinds of pollution.