The World Conservation Strategy, the Strategy to conserve and sustainable use of living resources of the world was developed by International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural “Resources (IUCN) in collaboration with UNEP, World Wild life Fund (WWF), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The strategy was adopted to achieve the following objectives:
1. To maintain the essential ecological processes and life support systems on which human survival depends.
2 To preserve the genetic diversity on which ecological processes of life support system are based.
3. To ensure the sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems (fishes, other wild life, forests and grazing lands) which support millions of rural communities as well as industries?
The strategy defined living resources conservation, explained its objectives and its contribution to the human survival and development. It also identified main obstacles in achieving these objectives. The strategy recommended action necessary for the conservation of tropical forests, arid land, wet-lands and global commons such as oceans, atmosphere and Antarctica for the present and future generation of mankind. The strategy also pleaded for the sustainable development of living resources of the world.
In retrospect the World Conservation Strategy 1980, appears to be a fore-runner of the World Charter for Nature which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1982, on the insistence of a majority of Third World Countries.
The Idea of World Charter for Nature was first introduced by President Mobutu Sese Seko, at the 12th General Assembly of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
1. That mankind is a part of nature and all life depends on the uninterrupted functioning of natural systems which ensure the supply of nutrients and energy.
2 That essential ecological processes, life support system and diversity of life forms which are being destroyed by excessive exploitation and habitat destruction by man must be protected.
3. That the natural resources should be used in such manner which ensures the preservation of species and ecosystems for the benefit of present and future generations.
4. That the genetic diversity on earth should not be compromised and that the populate levels of all life forms wild or domesticated must be at least sufficient for the survival and to meet this end the necessary habitats should be safe-guarded.
5. That an optimum sustainable productivity should be maintained from the ecosystems, organisms, resources of land, marine and atmosphere so that the system or their species should co-exist.
6. That proper measures at national or international, individual and collective, private or public levels should be adopted to protect nature and promote international co-operation.
The World Chater for Nature was an important expression of the intent among the member states of United Nations, to achieve a more harmonious and sustainable relationship between the humanity and rest of the biosphere. Point 14 of the Chater stated that principles set forth in the charter should be reflected in the law and practice of each state as well as at the international levels. Thus an effort was made to launch a cumulative action by all countries of the world for the protection of nature and natural resources.