In every society, social control is exercised with a view to making individual members conform to its standard. In other words, social values and objectives are laid down by the society. It is through the social process that the individual is made to conform to the ways of social life.

In a society, two opposing forces always operate. They are centripetal and centrifugal. The centripetal force wants to keep the tradition of the society intact. It moves backward. On the other hand, the centrifugal force wants radical changes. Because of these opposing forces there is a necessity to maintain balance between the two.

What are the Factors influencing social change in India:

With the achievement of self-rule, the wind of social change is blowing vigorously in India. Let us give a brief summary of these changes in relation to education under the following heads:


(i) Means of Communications:

For the last so many years, Indian education suffered a lot for want of communication. Schools were scattered at far of distances. As a result of which many deserving and desirous students could not get the benefit of education. Further difficulties arose because of the fact that some regions were thinly populated and had a population of less than 150 persons to the square mile.

(ii) Growth of Cities and Changing Population:

Another important factor responsible for social change in India is growth of cities and rate of population. People from rural areas migrating to the urban areas being attracted by new industries


(iii) Growth of Mass Media of Propaganda:

Another agency of social change in the emerging Indian society is the growth of mass media of propaganda. Because of this development, there is spread of new ideas and beliefs. The sizeable growth of newspapers, periodicals, books and press work as a powerful factor in building and developing social consciousness among the educated people of our country

(iv) Social Legislation and Social Awakening:

The development of new social awakening is leading the Indian society to a welcome change in the attitude of the people. In the past, the Indian laws and customs had religious sanctions.


Though it is not possible to highlight new social legislation in detail in this chapter, we can confine our discussion only to two important elements marriage and child labour-which have relevance with education. The Sarda Act (1929) has made the minimum age for marriage for toys and girls. Age limit for boys is 18 and girls 14.

(v) Philosophy of Humanism:

Because of the change in social outlook; the old cultural and caste ridden prejudices are vanishing day by day. Now people proclaim the value of human national character. Thus education helps for the progress of humanism in our country.

(vi) Development of Prestige Value of Education:


As a result of change, education has developed a prestige value in the society. Educated people are respected everywhere in the country. It encourages the parents to educate their children.

(vii) Economic Worth of Education:

Till recently, education was considered as a non-productive activity. The doors of the temples of learning were opened for the rich people. For the common people, education was a ‘closed shop’. With the dawn of independence, education is considered to be the No. 1 nation-building activity, as it is realized that country’s greatness depends on the quality and quantity of education.

From the discussion made above it is clear sufficiently that education in the emerging Indian society, through its various processes of teaching and learning attempts to modify the social order. Yet to be used as the chief agency of society for socializing human beings.