Multiple Media and Multimedia:

When we integrate more than on, medium into our teaching, we call it media-mix or use of multiple media o multimedia. But, due to the advancement of technology, one may not take the help of a number of media to be integrated with teaching.

A single medium consist of features of more than one medium. Such media are called multimedia For example, the advanced computers are called Multimedia computer. These computers comprise text, data, sound, animation, visual, picture, graphics and interaction. Therefore, the use of a single multimedia computer in the instructional process fulfills the requirements of many media. The components of a multimedia are as follows:

1. Text


2. Picture

3. Graphics

4. Animation

5. Visual


6. Audio

(ii) How does availability and accessibility affect the selection of media?

Availability and Accessibility:

Whenever a teacher decides to use any media for instructional purposes, he/she should consider their availability both inside and outside the institution. In schools, there are learning resource centers. These resource centers are equipped with various teaching and electronic media. The teacher can make sure that the intended media are available there If not available, he/she should explore the possibility of their availability outside the institution.


Sometimes, certain media may not be available to a teacher. I” such situations, the teacher can look for substitutions. For example, the book substitutes the age-old teacher, a TV programme substitutes a film. Therefore the teacher should not be desperate if a particular medium is not available. But think of alternatives to achieve the desired objectives.

Very often the availability of media even does not ensure selection of media. Available media should be accessible to the users. Accessibility means that the teacher is able to access the media for teaching purpose and the learner for learning purpose. Now-a-days, many schools are provided with televisions and computer sets.

Though they are available in schools,” they cannot be accessed either by teachers or the learners due to some reason. For example, the head of the institutions may not allow others to use their gadgets.

(iii) How does cost determine the media selection?


Ans. Cost is an important consideration in media selection. The instructional objective for an instructional task may be achieved with the help of alternative media. But, the choice of media depends on how much the user can afford to get such media.

For example, a teacher can buy/rent a film on how Indian Parliament functions provided he/she has the budget to do that. Otherwise, he/she has to depend on the print medium. Costs related to media are capital costs, production costs, recurrent costs and variable costs.

1. Capital Costs:

Capital costs are initial expenditure the institution incurs for the establishment of either a studio or a computing network or obtaining necessary hardware equipment.


2. Production Costs:

These costs are related to the production of instructional material. Production costs vary from one instructional material to another.

3. Recurrent Costs:

These costs are required to maintain and manage media For example, teleconferencing requires a high cost of maintenance. Because the production staff is required to operate the equipment.


4. Variable Costs:

These costs are linked with the increase or decrease in the use of media. For example, if the audio cassettes are used by many people their costs come down. Audio cassettes and radio have low fixed and low variable costs whereas broadcast television has high fixed cost and low variable costs.

(iv) List out the factors affecting the selection of media.

All the factors which contribute to the media selection may be categorized into the following:

1. Pedagogical Utility

2. Human Factors

3. Availability and Accessibility

4. User Friendly

5. Cost

6. Effective Communication

7. Infrastructural Facilities

8. Time

9. Hardware