What are the Methods of Soil Conservation?

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Methods of soil conservation can be grouped into the following categories:

1. Biological Methods :

In these methods conservation is achieved by the use of plant vegetation over such as:

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A. Agronomic practices growing vegetation in a manner that reduces soil loss. These include: (a) Contour farming (b) Terrace cropping (c) Mulching (d) Crop rotation (e) Strip cropping.

B. Dry Fanning:

This method is useful for the cropland existing in the areas of lower moderate rainfall. Dry farming methods differ in different areas and involve strip cropping, crop rotation, contour farming etc.

2. Mechanical Methods :

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These methods are aimed of checking the rapid fowl of air currents or surface flow of water and increasing the rate of water percolation downwards to subsurface. Contour terracing making batches erection of barriers to the flow of water and air currents, breaking the underground pan or basin enhance downward percolation of water are some of the common practices.

3. Other Methods

(1) Gully control- to check the widening of gullies by constructing bunds dams.

(2) Afforestation.

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(3) Stream bank protection- Prevention of cutting of river banks.

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