Inductive and Deductive Methods of Teaching Science
Inductive method is an important procedure to prove a universal law. In this method, this is done by showing that if the law is true in a particular condition, then it will also prove to be true in other similar condition at any place of the world. This method proceeds from concrete to abstract and from a specific example to the universal law.
As all the scientific principles and conclusions are result of induction, thus this method is considered to be one of the most important methods of teaching science.
Merits of Inductive Method
By making use of this method, following merits get accrue to the students as well as to teacher:
a. As this is a scientific method, thus it helps to considerable extent in developing scientific outlook among the students.
b. This method helps to develop scientific attitude among the students.
c. With the help of this method, teacher can develop qualities of critical thinking and habit of keen observation among the students properly and accurately.
d. This is a very logical and psychological kind of teaching science.
e. By this method, students get various opportunities to play an active role in learning process.
Demerits of Inductive Method
This method has certain limitations, some of which are as follows:
a. The results or conclusions drawn from such method are not found to be final in case where the amount of data is very large in number.
b. All the topics of science cannot be dealt with this method properly.
c. This method can only be used when teacher have much time for teaching process.
This method is just opposite of Inductive method. In this method, facts are being deduced by application of established formula or experimentation. In this method, one proceed from general to particular principles, from unknown to known and from abstract to concrete facts.
Merits of Deductive Method
This method has following merits:
a. As students of lower classes are being provided with established scientific principles, thus this method can prove to be effective for them.
b. This method is quite time saving as students are not required to analyse the universal principles.
c. Teacher’s duty or burden gets lessen to some extent by making use of this method as a result of which teachers find themselves in a comfortable and secured position.
d. Through this method, a teacher can cover the lengthy syllabi of class in shortest period of time.
Demerits of Deduction Method
This method suffers from following demerits:
a. As the approach of this method is non-conform and non-explanatory, because of which it is considered to be an unscientific method of teaching.
b. Through this method, it becomes difficult for the teacher to develop scientific attitude among the students.
c. As in this method, students do not get any opportunity to play active role in learning process, thus, some experts consider it as unpsychological in nature.
d. Rote memory is being encouraged by this method among the students as a result of which they do not become self-independent.
When to Use:
It can be said that on the basis of above discussion that it is not possible make use of these methods in isolation with each other. In reality, both of these methods are incomplete without the other. By combining these methods, education of science can be imparted to students of higher and secondary levels.