General Aims and Objectives of Teaching Science
Science can claim its honourable place in the school curriculum only when it produces desirable changes in boys and girls changes in their habits, actions, ways of thinking, living attitudes towards life. The specific objectives of teaching science must be based upon some decided criteria in a particular society.
1. Providing Vocational Career:
Science forms the basis for many courses and career of purely vocational natural and thus prepare pupils for various professions e.g. Engineering, Medicine, Agriculture. With the development of Five-Year plans in our country, more and more avenues for employment are creeping up. There are about two dozen training courses being offered by IT’s for which basis study of science is essential. Similarly quite a large number of careers about science students.
2. Providing Work for Leisure:
With the development of manipulative skills, the pupils learn to improvise apparatus and experiments, undertake scientific hobbies, make thins of common use i.e. ink, soap, candle, phenyle, chalk, cosmetics, boot-polish etc. and initiate certain creative and exploratory projects. Indirectly they provide work for their leisure time. Perhaps science is the only practical subjects which can offer such a large number of activities, hobbies, pursuits, projects which help to develop understanding, knowledge and on the other hand, provide host of opportunities for the profitable use of leisure-time.
The subject matter of science, if taught and developed in a revolutionary manner, would reveal stirring biographical anecdotes, incidents of adventure and stories of scientific charm and romance. All this provides for appreciation and emotional satisfaction. It can be taught through history of Science, modern inventions, life-stories of the scientists, impact of modern science on life etc.
This objective will be considered to be realised it the pupil can-
i. Appreciate the history of scientific developments through the ages.
ii. Appreciate the contribution made by scientists to human progress.
iii. Observe the world of thing around them and take a delight at the underlying scientific principles, processes etc.
iv. Derive a sense of pleasure in understanding the advance of science and technology in the modern world.
Science must develop certain attitude among the learners. These attitudes are popularly known as scientific attitudes.
Scientific attitudes can be defined as open- mindedness, a desire for accurate knowledge, confidence in procedures for seeking knowledge and the expectation that the solution of the problem will come through the use of verified knowledge. It is one of the most important functions of science teaching to develop and train the pupils for this attitude or way of life. After having attained these qualities, the pupils will behave in the following manner-
a. Be honest and truthful in recording and collecting scientific data.
b. Be objective in their approach.
c. React favourably to efforts made to use science towards human welfare.
d. Base their judgement on verified facts.
It is the function of science to inculcate among the pupils a living and sustaining in the environment in which they live and explore opportunities to satisfy their inner of curiosity and creativity. The children, who have developed such an interest, will always be on the look-out-to-
a. Undertake some science projects.
b. Actively participate in science clubs and science Fairs.
c. Meet reputed men of science whenever there is an occasion.
d. Collect specimens, pictures of scientists, scientific information etc.
The students are expected to develop three types of skills:
Observational and Recording skill:
a. Discriminate between closely resembling parts, apparatuses, and specimens.
b. Read apparatus and instruments correctly.
c. Locate errors and limitations in experimental setup and procedures.
d. The pupils can locate relevant details in apparatuses, instruments and specimens.
Manipulative skill- The pupils can:
a. Perform experiments at a reasonable speed.
b. Take necessary precautions in handing apparatus and performing experiments.
c. Improvise apparatus, models and experiments.
– Drawing skill- The pupils can –
a. Represent faithful the various parts of specimen, apparatus etc.
b. Draw proportionate diagrams of specimens, apparatus etc.
A serious objection against the present day teaching of science is that it is devoid of application. Pupils, after the study of science for years together, are found unable to put the simple principles of science in practice. A science graduate fails to even insert a fuse wire in the electric circuit of his home or locate a minor defect in his T.V. set. a pupil who has realised this objective, will be in a position to –
a. Establish relationship between various facts, concepts, processes and phenomenon.
b. Formulate hypotheses based on observation.
When a subject is taught properly, knowledge is transformed into understanding. At this stage the subject-matter comes to the pupil in a digested form. This objective can be considered to be
realised if the pupils can –
a. Identify relationships between various facts, concepts, processes and phenomenon.
b. Locate errors in faculty statements, concepts, processes, diagrams and experiments.
c. Translate tables, symbols, formulate, terms and concepts from one form to another.
d . Discriminate between closely related concepts, facts, principles, processes and phenomenon.
e. Explain facts, concepts, principles, processes and phenomenon.
It is the basic aim for the teaching of any subject. In case of science too, this aim of acquiring knowledge is emphasised too much. Very often we try to include this aim at the cast of other aims. It specifies that the pupils should acquire the knowledge of –
a. The environment in which we live.
b. Co-relation and inter- dependence of various branches of science.
c. Basic facts to read and understand scientific literature.
d. Scientific terms, concepts, formulate and processes.