After independence, India launched a series of economic plans for rapid expansion in agriculture, industry, transport and other infrastructure, with a view to increase production and employment, to reduce poverty and inequality of incomes and wealth and to establish a socialist society based on equality and justice.
To bring about increase in agriculture, the Five Year Plans in India brought additional land under cultivation, expanded irrigation facilities and used increasingly chemical fertilizers and pesticides and high yielding hybrid seeds, etc. In the sphere of industries, new industries, new industries have been set up, existing industries have been expanded and technology is being continuously upgraded, Development of Agriculture and industry has been accompanied by development and expansion of infrastructure- namely, of power, transport and communication, banking and finance, etc.
At the same time, because of growing population and high degree of mechanisation, mindless and ruthless exploitation of natural resources, we have degraded our physical environment such as, soil, water, and biotic factors on which we all subsist, and on which our entire agricultural and industrial development depends.
Rapid economic development is actually turning India into a vast westland. Environmental degradation include: Land degradation & soil erosion, deforestation, pollution, destruction of habitat, water logging, overgrazing and ecological degration, etc.