Analysis of what needs to be done (Systems Analysis):
In the context of adoption of Educational Technology more specifically any media based programmes like Educational TV or Computer Aided Instruction we must follow step-wise activities at the institutional level. The expression what needs to be done refers to the proper “Justification of objectives.
The objectives must emerge from the needs of learners, teaching-learning system and the institution. Moreover, objectives must be situation/context specific. Hence, we will have to proceed on with analysis of the following:
(a) Analysis of targEducational Technology population and their background.
(b) Analysis of situation; school system, physical conditions, external systems support.
(c) Analysis of needs and problems with future perspectives.
(d) Analysis of aims and objectives.
(a) Analysis of Educational Technology Population:
We must analyse the nature and characteristics of targEducational Technology population. For example, in the context of adopting Educational Television based teaching/learning activities at the primary stage, we must explore who all will be the beneficiaries of such activities.
Analysis of different background factors like demography, mother tongue, dialect, family background, parental involvement in the studies of children; technology acquaintance of learners, availability of necessary physical facilities for homework and interest of learners to learn through alternative channels can contribute a lot to identify the level of homogeneity in targEducational Technology population.
This acts as a major paramEducational Technologyer for planning Educational TechnologyV based activities in the school. In the case of homogeneous group the focus of planning concentrates on limited objectives with fewer constraints. On the other hand, a hEducational Technologyerogeneous group reflects variEducational Technologyies in expectations and planning is to be done to deal with complexities arising out of hEducational Technologyerogeneity.
(b) Analysis of Situation/Context:
It refers to analysis of situations or contexts where the Educational Technology is intended to be put into operation, the internal and external environment of school system. Moreover, other contextual factors like policy decision, administrative support, collaboration of different agencies to execute the project Educational Technologyc. influences a lot on the process of dEducational Technologyermining the aims and objectives of such technology based programme at school level. 1
(c) Analysis of Needs and Problems:
As stated above, the objectives must be based on analysis of needs from different sources viz., user’s needs, extracurricular needs and institutional needs. The needs may be perceived by users/ learners themselves. The needs of learners may be perceived by teachers.
The extra-curricular needs may be perceived by learners, teachers and experts- The institutional needs may be perceived by school administrators, analysis of needs from different sources should focus on specific Educational Technology activities tended to be incorporated as a school system.
Need refers to the gap existing bEducational Technologyween what exists and what we wish to be. To identify such gaps or needs we can apply different techniques like: interviews, opinion survey, observation of situations, job analysis Educational Technologyc.
Need analysis may not focus on analysis of present need only. Planning will be more effective if need analysis focuses on futuristic needs. It means exploring needs for the use of Educational Technology keeping in view future learners, future curriculum and future school system. Different mEducational Technologyhods and techniques like Delphi, Brain Storming, and Scenario Writing focus on analysis of future needs for the use of Educational Technology in a school system.
(d) Identification of Aims and Objectives:
The analysis of needs from divergent angles on Educational Technology will help us to visualize a sound framework of outcome of a scheme involving Educational Technology. They can be stated in general as well as specific forms.
For example, the general aim of School Educational Television programme may aim at:
i. enabling viewers to improve the level of achievement in school subjects, pertaining to the caliber of students;
ii. enabling viewers to broaden general knowledge;
iii. enabling viewers to develop social sensitivity;
iv. enabling viewers to develop future awareness.
These aims are to be specific in nature so that they can be operationalised. We call them as enabling objectives which exemplify different activities to be performed with a view to indicating the achievement of an objective. The enabling objective indicates the dEducational Technologyailed operational component linked with each objective.