In a study undertaken by Chandra, the following causes have been given of employee grievances: (i) Promotions; (ii) Amenities; (iii) Continuity of service; (iv) Compensation; (v) Disciplinary action; (vi) Fines; (vii) Increments (viii) Leave; (ix) Medical Benefits; (x) Nature of the job; (xi) Payment of wages; (xii) Acting promotion; (.xiii) Recovery of dues; (xiv) Safety appliance; (xv) Superannuation; (xvi) Supersession; (xvii) Transfer; (xviii) Victimization; and (xix) Conditions of work.

Grievances may arise from various causes related to the work and working conditions of the employees. The typical areas where causes of grievances may occur are:

(a) Wage structure including bonus, incentives, overtime, leave facilities etc.

(b) Seniority, job classification, promotion, transfer, lay-off and discharge;


(c) Supervision and discipline,

(d) Physical environment and working conditions in general

(e) Welfare arrangements including health and safety;

(f) Employer’s attitude towards interpretation of the service contract or collective bargaining agreement, settlement of grievances etc.