What are the advantages and disadvantages of Division of labour?

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Advantages of Division of Labour

Higher productivity:

Practice makes a man perfect. By concentrating on the repeating the same task again and again, a worker acquires dexterity, skill and speed, and more­over, division of labour avoids waste of time and effort caused by changes from one task to another.

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Specialisation requires simplification of tasks and facilitates use of labour saving devices. Due to all these the quantity and quality of work increase tremendously.

Lower costs:

Division of labour increases the efficiency of workers. Wasteful duplica­tion of process and tools is avoided. Large scale production offers several economies in the use of materials, machinery and skills. Therefore, costs of operations are reduced.

Simplified training:

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Specialisation implies that the worker need not learn the entire job. He needs to learn only a part of the whole task. Much time and effort is saved in the training of workers. Physical toil is also reduced.

Inventions:

When a worker performs the same job again and again he tries to discover new and better methods of doing the work.

This increases the possibilities of inven­tions and innovations. Division of labour thereby facilitates mechanisation and auto­mation of jobs. Use of machinery reduces stress and strain on workers.

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Greater cooperation:

Under division of labour the whole job cannot be completed unless workers performing different parts of the job cooperate with each other there­fore, division of work results in greater cooperation and discipline amongst workers. Besides, each worker is assigned the task best suited to him.

Better goodwill:

Higher efficiency and better quality of work help to satisfy customers and to earn higher profits. Simplification, standardisation and automation of work also add to the firm’s goodwill. As the supply of a variety of goods in the society increases, people can enjoy a higher standard of living than before.

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Disadvantages of Division of Labour

1. Monotony:

As a worker has to do the same work again and again he starts losing interest and pleasure in the work. The work becomes monotonous in nature and bore­dom arises.

2. Lack of responsibility:

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Under division of labour, the final product is not the output of a single person but the creation of several workers. Therefore, no individual can be held responsible if anything goes wrong. Involvement of workers in their work is re­duced.

3. Lack of job pride:

As a worker performs only a part of the job, he cannot take pride in the final output. There is little pleasure of creating something. Specialised workers may lose jobs due to changes in the process of work. Traditional craftsmanship declines.

4. Too much interdependence:

Division of labour leads to interdependence between indi­viduals, firms, industries and countries. Failure of any one link due to strike, war, breakdown in transport and communication, depression, etc. may cause great harm.

Inferior output by one worker may spoil the quality of the entire product. Specialists know only a single process of production. In case of unemployment, they find is difficult to get jobs.

5. Limited market:

The extent of division of labour is limited by size of the market demand. Division of labour is possible only when the scale of production is large. Large scale production is not always possible and it suffers from the evils of factory system.

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