Useful resources can be recovered through waste processing. Waste processing involves (I) Biological treatment like composting, anaerobic digestion (II) Thermal treatment like incineration (III) Physical treatment like making building blocks/bricks from mist wastes such as construction waste and (IV) Chemical treatment to recover compounds such as glucose, synthetic oil, cellulose etc.
Huge amount of energy is available in municipal solid waste. Bioremediation process will serve the dual purpose at (I) waste stabilization and (II) gaseous energy recovery in the fort of methane.
Municipal solid waste can also be used as raw material for anaerobic digestion in solid phase fermentation process.
Incinerations have become an economical method of municipal solid waste treatment as it reduces the volume and weight of the waste while producing thermal energy. Incineration of municipal wastes containing polyvinyl chloride and its copolymer resins by spraying aqueous slurries containing powdered composites basic carbonates such as Potassium Carbonate, Calcium Carbonate, Sodium Carbonate, Barium Carbonate, Magnesium Carbonate and Lithium Carbonate into the incinerator of municipal refuse. However, it causes secondary pollution by generation of dibenzofurans.
Attempts have been to develop thermal processing of waste along with power generation, from incineration have not been successful mainly because of low calorific values and high moisture content of the waste.
However, for efficient utilization of energy and natural resources, municipal solid waste can use as manures as well. Land application of compost from municipal wastes could be one of the most economical and attractive method of waste disposal.
While at the same time increasing the organic nutrients in the soil. However, long term application garbage in agricultural fields affects certain physiochemical, micronutrient and heavy metal properties of soils depending upon the composition of waste.
The formation products from the biodegradable organic fraction of municipal solid waste can be used as a cheap carbon source to remove nitrogen and phosphorus of the incoming waste water treatment plants.