The main characteristic feature of the tropical savanna biome is that the large expanse of grassland is punctuated with trees and shrubs. This biome lies in the transition belt between tropical rainforest and tropical steppes and deserts.
The trees are characteristically flat topped. Savanna shrubs and trees are generally xerophytic, or drought resistant. As a natural device to protect them from seasonal dryness, nature has provided those small thick leaves, rough bark, or waxy leaf surfaces.
The largest region of this biome is found in the Sahel region and the famous Serengeti Plains of Africa. B Certain areas of Savanna biome are also found in Australia, South America and India.
Savanna biome has been given the local names which include the Llanos in the tropical savanna biome. Venezuela, the Campos in Brazil and loss of leaves during the dry season helps prevent moisture loss through evaporation.
The trees have deep roots so that they can utilize water present in the soil during the dry season. Near the equator-ward margins of savanna region grasses are higher and there is an increase in the number of trees and they are closely spaced. Towards the pole-ward drier margins the grasses are shorter and trees are smaller and widely spaced.
Africa’s Savanna biome regions have been like zoological gardens. These grassland regions are home of various Herbivores such as giraffe, zebra, antelope, elephant and rhinoceros.
However, herbivores are killed and eaten by carnivores such as the lion, leopard, and tiger. Besides these large animals, other wild animals like jackal, hyena and wild dogs are also found.
Such animals have rightly been called scavengers. It is to be noted that the savanna regions of South America are devoid of large herbivores (grass-eaters).