This technology is used for insertion of new DNA into the vector in the laboratory using techniques for cutting and rejoining DNA molecules. This involves five steps-

  1. Isolation of a useful desired DNA segment from the donor organism.
  2. Splicing it into a suitable vector (vehicle DNA) and fusing the spliced DNA segment i.e. passenger DNA to it to form recombinant DNA.
  3. Producing numerous copies of recombinant DNA (rDNA).
  4. Inserting the recombinant DNA into a recipient organism and
  5. Screening of the transformed cells.

Application of recombinant DNA technology

1. Preparation of gene maps.

2. In revealing details of various infections, diseases such as “inborn errors of metabolism.”


3. Finding out the complete nucleotide sequence of genome of an organism and identification of genes.

4. Detecting cytogenetic abnormalities e.g. Down’s syndrome, multifactorial disorders, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease etc.

5. Preventing various genetic disorders e.g. inherited haemoglobin disorders, phenylketonuria, retinoblastoma etc.

6. Understand a molecular event is biological processes like growth, differentiation, ageing etc.


7. Replacement or correction of deleterious mutation by transfer of clone gene in a patient.

8. Production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or transgenic organisms for providing particular product and nutrient.

9. Production of chemical compounds cheaply and efficiently in biochemical and pharmaceutical industry e.g. Human insulin (treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes), Human growth hormone (replacement of missing hormone in short stature people), Calcitonin (treatment of rickets), Chorionic gonadotropin (treatment of infertility), Blood clotting factor VIII/IX (treatment of hemophilia A/B), Tissue plasminogen activator (dissolving blood clots in heart attacks and strokes), Erythropoietin (stimulation of the formation of erythrocytes i.e. RBCs in patients suffering from anaemia during repeated kidney dialysis or AIDS treatment), platelet derived growth factor (stimulation of wound healing), Interferon (treatment of viral infection, cancer), Interleukins (enhanced immune system’s activity), Vaccines (for hepatitis B, herpes, influenza, Pertussis, meningitis) etc.

10. Gene Therapy: Removal and replacement of defective genes with normal healthy functional genes is known as gene therapy e.g. Sickle cell anaemia, Severe Combined Immuno-Deficiency (SCID). SCID is due to a defect in the gene for the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) in 25 per cent of the cases.


11. It has several negative features as well: extensive erosion and genetic destruction of plant Germplasm; ecological imbalance; production of monsters; production of dangerous toxic chemicals, production of highly lethal microbes and their use in microbiological warfare to kill humans, animals and plants.