Some Important Terms of Science

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Abdomen is the large interior cavity of the body extending from the brim of the privies to the diaphragm.

Aorta is the large trunk emerging from the left ventricle of the heart. It distributes purified blood through its branches all over the body.

Aqueous humor is the transparent fluid of the anterior chamber of the eye.

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Arteries are blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart. Arthritis is the inflammation of joints due to infection, metabolic or constitutional causes.

Auricles are two upper chambers of the heart into which the blood comes form the veins.

Bile is the secretion of the liver poured into duodenum. It is alkaline and is helpful in digestion, absorption and excretion.

Blood is a red-coloured fluid circulating through the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins. One cubic millimetre of normal blood contains about 5,000,000 red corpuscles and 6,000 white corpuscles. The red colour of the blood is due to the presence of pigment known as haemoglobin. The arterial blood is of bright red colour and the venous blood is of dark red colour. The total amount of blood in body is equal to about one-twelfth of the weight of the body.

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Blood count is the determination of the number of white and red corpuscles in a cubic millimetre of blood.

Cerebrum is the chief and largest pan of brain which occupies the upper and frontal two-thirds of entire brain covering all other parts of brain. It is also the centre of intelligence, coordination, memory, will, imagination, etc. It controls voluntary action as well.

Duodenum is the first part of the small intestine where pancreatic juice helps in the digestion of food.

Enzymes are a catalytic substance promoting a chemical change in human only. These are contained in juices secreted by different glands which help in the digestion of food.

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Epilepsy is the disorder marked by disturbed electrical rhythms of the central nervous system and typically manifested by conclusive attacks usually with clouding of consciousness.

Gall bladder is the pear-shaped pouch situated at the lower border of the liver for the storage of bile and the secretions of mucous.

Gastric Juice is a secretion of glands in the stomach. It contains hydrochloric acid which destroys bacteria contained in the food and enzymes which help in digesting proteins and fats.

Haemoglobin is a pigment present in human blood.

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Kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped glandular organs responsible for the excretion of urine, maintenance of blood reaction, water balance and concentration of blood. The excretory products formed in the body are conveyed to the kidneys where these are filtered and waste eliminated as urine.

Pancreas is the long, yellowish gland across the posterior wall of the abdomen secreting pancreatic juice which digests proteins, fats and carbohydrates.

Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands near the thyroid glands. The hormones secreted by them regulate the ratio of calcium in blood and growth of body.

Prostrate glands are the sex glands surrounding the beginning portion of urethra.

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Pulmonary veins emerge out of lungs. They carry purified blood from the lungs to the left auricle from where it goes to the left ventricle. ,

Retina is the light-receptive layer in the eye. It is composed of rods and cones. Rods are concerned with vision in dim light whereas cones are sensitive to colours and bright light.

Spleen is the largest lymphatic organ of the body located immediately below the diaphragm on the left side. Formation of red blood cells, storage of blood and destruction of corpuscles are some of its main functions.

Thyroid glands are the small ductless glands on either side of the windpipe in the neck. The homones secreated by it contain 65 per cent of iodine. Its deficiency causes dwarfness in children and goitre in adults.

Veins are the blood vessels which carry impure blood back to heart form different part of the body.

Ventricles are the two lower chambers of the heart from which purified blood flows out through arteries.

Vitreous humour is the transparent fluid in the posterior chamber of the eye.

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