(a) They are formed by the denudation of different types of rocks and deposition of silt by various rivers.

(b) They are found along inland rivers, deltas of rivers and along the coast.

(c) Main characteristics are:

(i) Rich in potash, humus and lime.


(ii) Deficient in nitrogen and phosphorous.

(iii) Bhangar-older alluvium, light grey, clayey, not so fertile.

(iv) Khadar-new alluvium, loamy, more fertile.

(d) It is coarse in the upper course and fine in the lower course.


(d) Crops grown are: Rice, wheat, jute, sugar cane, millets and pulses.

(e) Alluvial soil is found in Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, West Bengal, The Brahmaputra Valley, coastal strip of Peninsular India.