In evaluation, we reach a value judgment on the basis of the fixed principles of evaluation. In this connection the Secondary Education Commission opined, ‘The school of today concerns itself not only with the intellectual pursuits but also with the emotional and social development of the child, his physical and mental health, his social adjustment and other equally important aspects of his life-is a word with all round development of his personality”.
Evaluation is an attempt to know the extent of success of the child in various fields and to help him in making further progress. It is an attempt to measure the level of student’s level of intelligence, attainment, aptitude and interest etc. Our evaluation system should be such as to help us in understanding our pupils better so that he may be helped to overcome his difficulties.
These lays “Evaluation” is used for “Examinations”. Evaluation has been defined by Wrightston, “Evaluation is a relatively new technical term introduced to design a more comprehensive concept of measurement implied in conventional tests and examinations”.
Examinations put more emphasis on measuring the student’s achievements in academic subjects only but in evaluation an attempt is made to measure all the changes that take place in the development of balanced personality and measure the qualities of head, hand, health and heart of the pupil.
Putting his opinion in respect of evaluation M. Brown writes, “Evaluation is essential in the never ending cycle of formulating goals measuring progress towards them and determining the new goals which emerge as a result of new warnings-evaluation involves measurement which means objective quantitative evidence. But it is broader than measurement and implies that considerations have been given to certain values, standards and then interpretation of the evidence has been made in the light of the particular situation.”
In the opinion of Good, “Evaluation is a process of ascertaining of judging the amount of some thing by careful appraisal”.
From the above we can conclude that evaluation is concerned both with scholastic achievements and behavioural changes.
Guiding principles of evaluation
The principles of evaluation as suggested by Grim can be summarised as under:
(i) Evaluation takes into consideration the complete picture just as we consider the total personality of the child in learning.
(ii) For evaluation of the child an attempt is made to collect varied and relatively objective evidence.
(iii) Evaluation should enable the child to appraise himself.
(iv) For the success of evaluation process that teachers, parents, pupils, community, administration should participate in the process of evaluation.
(v) Evaluation must be a continuous and cumulative process.
(vi) Evaluation must be closely related to the guidance programme.