The Lok Sabha:
The Lower House of the Parliament is called the Lok Sabha. It is more popular than the Upper House in composition and complexion. The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people of India. It is, therefore, more representative and democratic than the Rajya Sabha.
According to Article 81(1) of the Indian constitution, the maximum membership of the Lok Sabha is 552. However, the 31st amendment has fixed the membership of the Lok Sabha to 545 till 2030. While not more than 525 members can be directly elected to the Lok Sabha from the territorial constituencies in the states, the Union Territories can send maximum 20 members to it.
Further, the President of India has power to nominate two members to the Lok Sabha from the Anglo-Indian community if he feels that the community is not adequately represented in the Parliament. The maximum strength of the Lok Sabha has been fixed due to the fact that too large a body would be inefficient.
Party position in the 13th Lok Sabha, 1999:
The total membership was 543; elections were held for 538 seats. The BJP and its allies won 296 seats while Congress and its allies won 134 seats. The left parties won 42 seats. The Independents and others were 65.
Party position in the 14th Lok Sabha, 2004:
The total membership was 543; elections were held for 542 seats. The Congress and its allies won 219 seats. The BJP and its allies won 185 seats. The Independents and others were 137.
Party position in the 15th Lok Sabha, 2009:
Elections were held for 543 seats. Congress and BJP got 205 and 116 seats respectively. The UPA led by Congress won required majority and formed government at the centre.
Qualifications of Members:
To be a member of the Lok Sabha, a person shall have the following qualifications:
(a) He must be a citizen of India;
(b) He must not be less than 25 years of age; and
(c) He must possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed by the Parliament
The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people. All persons w are 18 years old or who are above 18 years are eligible to take part in this election, the Lok Sabha there is reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
From Orissa, 21 members are elected to the Lok Sabha. Out of these 21 seats five se are reserved for tribal’s while three seats are reserved for dalits or Harijans. The rest se are open or unreserved. The members of any caste or community can contest in these constituencies.
The Term of Lok Sabha:
The term of the Lok Sabha is five years. The term of the Lok Sabha starts from first day of the commencement of its first session. In the draft constitution, its term been fixed at four years. But it was increased to five years by the Drafting Committee the constitution. The Committee felt that a term of four years would be short.
The Parliament has the power to extend the term of the Lok Sabha during war emergency for one year at a time.
The 42nd Amendment Act, 1976 had increased the term of the Lok Sabha from 5 years to 6 years. But it was reduced to 5 years by the 44th Amendment Act, 1978.
There is quorum if one-tenth of the members of the House are present. In absence of quorum, the House cannot start its business.
Each MP (member of either House of the Parliament) draws Rs. 16,000/- per month his salary. Apart from these, he is entitled to pension on retirement as an MP, travel allowance, free railway transit and other facilities, as prescribed.