Presently two main sub-divisions of ecology are the following:

(i) Autecology

(ii) Synecology

(i) Autecology:


This branch of ecology studies an individual organism including its life history and behaviour as a means of adaptation to the environment. Such a study may be concerning an animal, a plant or an aquatic plant etc.

(ii) Synecology:

This branch of ecology is concerned with the study of a group or groups of organisms which form a unit.

Synecology is further sub-divided in the following:


(a) Population ecology

(b) Community ecology

(c) Ecosystem ecology