Modes of transportation in India are classified in the following three categories


Modes of transportation are classified in the following three categories:

(a) Land Transportation:

(i) Man.


In some remote and inaccessible areas, man is the only means of transport. Some Himalayan slopes are too steep for animals to go. There load is transported by man. This system is common in the mountainous regions of India.

(ii) Animal Transport.

Animals are an important mode of transport in India. These animals are beasts of burden. Such as oxen, camels, horses, mules, donkeys, yaks, etc.

(iii) Road Transport.


This mode is common. Roads play an important role in transportation of variety of products as well as of passengers.

(iv) Railway Transport.

(v) Pipe Lines.

(b) Water Transportation:


(i) Ocean and sea routes.

(ii) Inland water ways

(c) Air Transportation:

Advantages of Means of Transportation


(i) They enable the producer to serve large and even far off market places.

(ii)They help in checking fluctuations in prices of commodities by maintaining continuous flow of supply.

(iii) World has become a single market.

(iv) In case of an emergency or calamity like floods, earthquakes, diseases, droughts, etc., the means of transport play a significant role. Relief items like food, medicines, clothing etc can be made available to the affected persons speedily.


(v) They are of great strategic importance during war.

Geographical Factors affecting Transportation.

Geographical factors facilitate as well as hinder transportation.

(1) Terrain.

Plains with few obstructions are most suitable for surface transportation. Roads and railways are easy and cheaper to construct, while the same become highly difficult and costly in mountainous terrain, where mountain sides are excavated, maintained against avalanche, snowing, etc. and a large number of bridges are constructed besides covering a long zig zag route for crow-fly distance.

While low lands in Northern India, provide great facility, ease of construction and low cost of maintenance. The indented coastline encourages ocean going transport, as it provides shelter to the ships in times of storms. Such coast line gives ideal sites for the construction of ports.

(2) Climate.

Cold climate with long freezing weather conditions discourage land transport and so do the heavy rainfall, fog and storms. Ladalch, Kargil and other cold mountainous regions are the examples indicating negative role of climate in matters of transportation.

Fog and storms hinder water and air transportation, wherever they occur.

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