The importance of biodiversity has been promoted by the International Convention on Biological Diversity, part of Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The convention was signed by 152 nations committing that by law to adopt ways and means of conserving biodiversity and to ensure and equity of benefits from biological diversity.

The USA was notable by its refusal to sign, but it was later ratified a new administration. The convention has spawned many international initiatives and projects while continuing meetings to develop it then.

It has laid the foundation for a unified and inclusive approach to global biodiversity including the collaborative efforts of developed nations, which posses the financial means and scientific expertise required for effective conservation and the developing world water most of biodiversity resides.

Another product of Earth Summit Agenda 21, also addresses the conservation of biological diversity but is not legally binding Agenda 21 is a blue print to encourage sustainable development in the 21st century and recommendations for strong living the role of major groups, including women in sustainable development.


The exploitations of indigenous knowledge by foreign interest are recognized by the Convention on Biological Diversity which refers to the sovereign rights of resources. There is an International Alliance to the indigenous trivial developed of the tropical forest which issued a Forest People Charter setting out conservation policy based on the rights of these peoples to their forests.

To achieve conservation of biological diversity it is usually necessary to establish protected area to reintroduce some species, to restore ecosystems and to manage or eradicate previously introduced plants and animals conservation strategies must exist at a range of different levels of detail and scale to accommodate the markedly different political scales at which conservation objectives are directed such strategies form the basis of conservation legislation.

The IUCN has provided a link between NGOs, government agencies and sovereign states. The conservational in the International and export. Trade in endangered species (CITIES) has been successful in preventing the illegal import of many rare species and animal products and has been credited with saving the elephant from extinction. More recently Antarctic sea and marine wildlife have been given specific protection and mining has been banned. The protocol on Environmental protection to the

Antarctic Treaty (1992) draws together this whole strategy with one document including how environment damage should be monitored and a requirement to report on the progress of species protection measures.