The Marathas were defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali in Third battle of Panipath but very soon they recovered their power and influence.
They even brought the nominal Mughal emperor Shah Allam II under their control In 1772 Peshwa Madhava Rao I did After his death his brother Narayan Rao became the Peshwa Raghunath Rao the uncle of Madhav Rao treacherously murdered Narayan Rao.
Finally, Raghunath Rao was recognised as the Peswha. But the Maratha leaders led by Nanafadnavis opposed the authority of Raghunath Rao.
A posthumous son was born to Gangabati the wife of the late Peshwa. The Maratha leaders recognised the infant as the Peshwa and organised a council of regency in his name. On the other hand Raghunath Rao or Raghoba appealed to the English at Bombay for help.
The English in Bombay or the Bombay Government were encouraged to support the cause of Raghunath Rao with the hope of occupying some maritime territories near Bombay on 7tit March 1775 the English concluded the Treaty of Surat with Raghoba or Raghunath Rao.
The English agreed to help Raghunath Rao with a force of 2500 men the cost of which was to be borne by him Raghunath Rao promised “to cede to the English Salsette and Bassein.
He also agreed to surrender to the English a part of the revenue of Broach and Surat district. With the help of English troops Raghunath Rao defeated the army of the Peshwa at a place situated between the river Mahi and town of Anad.
The Bombay Government had concluded Treaty of Surat with Raghoba without the knowledge of the Governor General, So Warren Hastings criticised the action of the Bombay Government as impolitic dangerous unauthorised and unjust.
He sent Colonel Upton to Poona Upton concluded the Treaty of Purandhar with the Poona authorities, in March 1776. The English agreed to give up the cause of Raghoba.
They were allowed to retain Salsette and enjoy the revenue of Broach Madhave Rao Narayan was recognised as the rightful Peshwa Raghoba was pensioned off the Sindia got back his territories Vest of Jumna. The treaty secured peace for the English for twenty years.
Second Anglo-Maratha War:
In 1800 A. D. the Maratha statesman Nanafadnavis died. He was responsible for maintaining solidarity of the Maratha confederacy. He had also resisted British interference in Maratha affairs.
With his death departed all the wisdom and moderation of the Maratha Government. Nanafadnavis had clearly realised the danger of English intervention in Maratha affairs.
Immediately after his death Maratha leader like Daulat Rao Sindhia and Jaswant Rao Holkar entered upon a serious struggle with each other for supremacy at Poona.
In the mean time Daulat Rao sindhia murdered Vithuji Holkar the brother of Jaswant Rao Holkar So Jaswant Rao Holkar defeated the combined armies of Sindhia and Peshwa at Poona and occupied the city. The Peshwa Baji Rao took refuge at Bassein.
The Peshwa was in a very helpless position and now he applied for protection to the Governor General Lord Wellseley Baji Rao II agreed to accept the subsidiary alliance and concluded the Treaty of Bassein in December 1802. The Peshwa agreed to maintain a contingent of British troops on his territory.
The Peshwa also surrendered to the English territories yielding revenue worth twenty six lakhs of rupees. He subjected his relation with other states to the control of the English.
A British force under Arthur Wellesley conducted the Peshwa to his capital and restored his to him former position on 13th May 1803.
But the Treaty of Bassein hurt the feelings of other Maratha leaders. They considered the Treaty as surrender or their independence.
They tried to reconcile their mutual jealousies and to present a united from to4he English. The Peshwa also represented for his action and secretly helped the other Maratha leaders.
Daulta Rao Sindhia and Raghuji Bhonsale Berar patched up their difference and tried to secure the support of Jaswantr Rao. But the Maratha leader were unable to act together even during this period of crises.
Sindhia and Bhonasale made preparation for war against the English. Hostilities between the Marathas and the English began in August 1803 but Lord Wallseley was adequately prepared for war. The French trained soldiers of the Marathas did not prove very useful.
The Maratha committed a mistake in abandoning the harassing tactics of their pre-decessors. In the Deccan Arthur Wellseley occupied Ahmednagar in August 1803. In September 1803 he also defeated the combined army of Sindhia and Bhonsale at Assaye.
The English army captured Burhanpur and Asirgarh. Raghuji Bhonsale was completely defeated at Aragon Lord Lake captured Delhi and Agra and defeated the army of Sindhia at Laswari in 1803 Raghuji Bhonsale concluded the Treaty of Deogaon with the English and ceded Cuttack and Balasore region of Orissa.
He agreed to maintain a British resident at Nagpur. Daulat Rao Sindhia concluded the…. treaty of Surji Aijangaon with the English in December 1803.
He ceded all the territories between the Ganges and Jamuna to the English. He also ceded Ahmednagar and Broach. He renounced his entire claim over the Mughal emperor.
The Sindhia concluded another Treaty with the English and entered into a subsidiary alliance. A force of6000, infantry was to be stationed not in Sindhia’s territory but near its frontier.
As a result of the Second Anglo-Maratha war the British possession, Madras and, Bengal were linked up and were also expanded in other directions.
The titular Mughal emperor Shah Alam II came under their protection and treaties of alliances were concluded with the states of Jodhpur, Jaipur, Bundi and the Jat kingdom of Bliaratpur. The French trained soldiers in the service of Maratha were removed.
Jaswant Rao Holkar had remained aloof from the war. But war between the Holkar and the English broke out in April 1804 Holkar followed the old tactics of the Marathas and defeated colonel Monson at Makundara Pass. Holkar marched towards Delhi and besieged Delhi from 8th to the 14th October.
A contingent of his army, commanded by Holkar was routed by General Lake on 17th November. Finally, Lord Wellesley was recalled by the home authorities in England and the Second Maratha War ended. Holkar fled towards the Punjab being pursued by Lord Lake.
Third Angto-Maratha War:
During the early years of the nineteenth century there was confusion and maladministration in the Maratha States. The Maratha states also lost economic stability. Jaswant Rao Holkar died in October 1811. Daulat Rao Sindhia faced acute financial crisis.
So he permitted his soldiers to collect money on their own account from the district. This adversely affected the morale of the army. The Bhonsale state of Nagpur was also in the midst of disorder. The Pindaris and the Pathans frequently raided the territory of the Bhonsale. Thus the Maratha chiefs were not in a position to defy the power of the English.
In 1813 Lord Hastings succeeded Lord Minto as the governor general of the East India Company. Lord Hastings immediately after taking over change as the governongeneral diverted his attention towards the Bhonsale state of Nagpur. Raghuji Bhonsale died in March 1816 A.D.
His imbecile son Parsoji succeeded him. Appa Saheb the ambitious causin of Parsoji functioned as the regent. In May 1816 the British government compelled Appa Shaheb to conclude a treaty of subsidiary alliance.
Which deaft a blow to the independence of Nagpur. Hastings also diverted his attention towards the Peshwa Baji Rao II. The Peshwa thought to make himself free from British control being influenced by his minister Trimbakji.
He consolidated his authority over the Maratha Jagirdars. Trimbakji took initiative for the revival of the Maratha confederacy. So he sent envoys to the courts of Sindhia, Holkar and Bhonsale.
In 1814 the Peshwa reasserted his claim on the Nizam and the Gaikward of Borada. Gangadhar, Sastri the minister of Gaikward who was a friend of the English came at Poona to settle the outstanding claims of the Peshwa on his master.
But he was treacherously murdered at the instigation of Trimbakji. But Peshwa Baji Rao II was forced by the British resident at Poona Elphinestone to surrender, “Trimbakji to the English.
Trimbakji was confined in a fort at Thana. But Trimbakji dramatically escaped from the fort being secretly helped by the Peshwa. The English demanded the surrender of Trimbakji.
At the same time the Peshwa was asked to surrender the fors of Raigarh and Purandhar to the English, Lord Hastings directed Elephinestone, to restrict the growing power of the Peshwa.
Finally Peshwa Baji Rao II was compelled to sign the Treaty of Poona with the English. He had to renounce his claim as the head of the Maratha confederacy. A subsidiary force was maintained on his territory and in lieu of this the Peshwa ceded territory yielding an annual revenue of 34 lakhs of rupees.
The Peshwa also agreed to reduce his claim on the Gaikward to four lakhs of rupees. Above all the surrendered the Konkan region to the English. The terms of the Treaty of Poona were very server.
On 5th November 1817 Sindhia was forced by the English to conclude the Treaty of Gwalior. It was alleged that he was supporting the Pindaris against the English. The Sindhia according to the Treaty of Gwalior gave up his claims over the Rajput states beyond the Chambal.
The states of Rajputana were thus brought under British protection. Thus the Maratha chiefs lost their independence. They were convinced that Lord Hastings aimed at their ruin.
The other Maratha Chiefs supported the Peshwa who wanted to he free from British control. On 5th November 1817 Peshwa Baji Rao II sacked and burnt the British residency at Poona. Elphinestone shifted his camp to Khirki. But the British fully prepared for war.
Peshwa Baji Rao II was defeated by Burr at Khirki and Poona came under the occupation of the English. The British army pursued him Peshwa from place to place.
But British defeated him at Koregaon and at Ashti in February 1818 In June the Peshwa surrendered to English; Lord Hastings abolished the Peshwa ship which was the symbol of die National unity of die Marathas. Baji Rao II was granted a pension of eight lakhs per annum and was confined at Bithur near Kanpur.
Appa Shaheb who had occupied the throne of Nagpur killing Parsoji was defeated in the battle of Sitabaldi in November 1817. He was finally defeated in the battle of Nagpur in December 18 17.
He feld to the Punjab- All territories to the North of Narmada were, annexed by the English. The army of Malkar Rao Holkar was completely routed in the battle of Mohidpur in December 1817 by the English General John Malcolm. Holkar was forced to sign the Treaty of Mandasor with the English.
He renounced his claim’ in over the Rajput states, and surrendered to the English all territories south of Narmada. Thus tile Peshwa ceased to rule over Poona. Sindhia, Holkar and Gaikward recognised the sub-ordination of the company. The Maratha finally lost their political power and influence.