In a democratic state, where social aims of education are followed, the activities performed by the individuals should be valued on the basis of their social obligations. The main duties and responsibilities of the individual are ‘social service.’ Everywhere, the spirit of team-work should be emphasised.
According to this view, social mind is the corporate mind of all. In the field of education the corporate mind of the pupils and teacher organize around some principle of knowledge on which all minds think as one. Even to learn a lesson, an individual has to become the member of a class. Thus the social tie binds the teacher and the pupil together into a class.
Another view of society regards it as an organism. Just as a biological organism is a whole consisting of many parts, each performing its unique function in integration with the rest, so also the society consists of many individual persons in its whole. Society Originates in Human Nature Itself
Another theory of the nature of society regards individual as endowed with a social nature. Man is social by instinct. He is born with under-developed potentialities. To actualize the full potentialities with which he is born, needs a large society.
Society Changes the Animal Instinct of Each Individual:
Man is born with animal instincts. His animal instinct gets modified because of the magic touch of social environment.
People living together are said to live in a society. One of the important functions of education is to serape individuals for membership of their society.
Some educationists are of opinion that individual is endowed with a social nature. Man is social by instinct. But some students of human nature criticize this view. According to them, the social basis of human nature is habitual, not instinctive.
In totalitarian states, where social aim in education is emphasised, state gives first priority to the education of the elite class of exceptional endowment. People learn to sacrifice their time, energy and resources, not for themselves, but for the state.
An analysis of history proves that the social aim in its most extreme form consider individual as a means and state as an end. Individual sacrifices everything for the good of the society or nation.
Social Aim Encourages Narrow Nationalism:
Social aim emphasises superiority of the state over the individuals. Education in such a state teaches people for sacrifice of the self in the interest of the state. Literary education it confined to the praise of the nation.
When education becomes the responsibility of the state authority, the blessings of scientific inventions are used only to meet the ends of the state. They consider the ends of the state to be superior to the individuals because the state is a link between succeeding generations. Education of the ‘Whole Man’ is Neglected
It has been accepted by all that the scope of education is quite vast. It attempts to develop the personality of the individual and prepare him for membership of his society. It is also used for several developments. Thus education aims at the development of the ‘whole man’ or ‘Total Man.’
Purpose of Education becomes In doctrinal:
Education, in such a state is used for the purpose of teaching people what to believe. People do not have freedom to ‘believe’ according to their own way. They are instilled with ideas that are beneficial to the state.
The true conception of education demands that it is to be based on psychology. Education must accord with child nature or nature of the child must be known by the educators. Studies of developmental psychology revealed the fact that the child is a very different being at successive stage of his growth and development.