Some of the Programmes of in-service education which can be initiated at the secondary school areas under:

1. Seminar:

There can be collective thinking on various problems of education by the teacher, problems arising out of situations within the school can be discussed and solutions found Seminar can be organized on any problem of education. The following steps can be undertaken to thrust out of the problem in hand and make necessary decisions:

(a) A paper is prepared before hand and its copies are distributed among the participants.


(b) The paper is read out and discussed in the plenary session of the seminar.

(c) Different aspects of the problems are thrashed out and various committees are formed think over the different aspects.

(d) Reports of the committees can be discussed in general meeting and necessary recommendations are made.

Such seminars in the school provide friendly and informal atmosphere to discuss and exchange views.


2. Workshop:

The approach in a workshop is more practical than that of a seminar. All tin participants in the workshop work actively and make significant contributions. A workshop ii conducted to think over more practical problems of education such as lesson planning, curricular, construction, question-paper setting etc. In a workshop ample time is given for individual work and study. Every participant make intensive study of the problems, which arise out of their experiences and gives practical suggestions on it. Then those suggestions are put before the meeting of all the participants for the benefit of all.

3. Refresher course:

Refresher courses are conducted to enable the teachers to keep pace with the latest developments in their subject as well as in theory and practice of teaching. Refresher course is-an important source of re-orientation of teacher.


The services of those teachers in the schools who have already undergone such refresher courses can be of great use of others. The service of some experts can be obtained for the benefit of teachers. Professional and academic] efficiency of the teachers who take up such refresher courses is increased.

4. Study groups:

Teachers of different school subjects can form study groups. These study groups can function under the expect guidance of field advisers of state institute of education. The members of a study group may meet weekly or fortnightly to discuss problems can concerning their subject areas and work out new teaching techniques.

The topic chosen for discussion should be concerned with the practical needs and personal experience of the members of the study groups can prove useful in the formation of educational plans.


5. School programmes:

Different school programmes can be conducted to serve the purpose of in-service education such as faculty meetings, club meetings, exhibitions, film shows, experimental projects, demonstration lessons, extension lectures etc.

6. Study of professional writings:

A lot of instructional material in almost all the subject is being supplied/provided by the S.I.E., NCERT and other similar sources to the schools. Such a type of material can serve the purpose of in-service education for the secondary school teachers. Through the study of professional writings the teachers can know about the latest developments in the various fields of education.


The teachers in a school can discuss the suitability of such material and its implications in the school. They can themselves discuss the benefits of such like material in their actual class-room situations and learning outcomes on the part of the learners.

7. Conference:

Conference of teachers, educator experts may be from the S.I.E. or outside and educationists can be convened by the school for the board discussion of educational subjects like revision of school curriculum, selection of text books, adoption of new methods of teaching and evaluation, guidance of gifted children, problems of handicapped children, etc. A number of schools can participate in such like conferences.