1. Calculating Machine
Calculating machine replaces the human labour in operations of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing of arithmetical figures. To err is human. Mistakes may occur, when dealing with figures. The chances of these mistakes are completely removed by the calculating machines. These machines are also used for calculation including interest, commission, discount, exchange, etc. These machines can perform four or five times the work done by a man.
2. Adding-listing Machine
Simple adding machines will show the result of adding operation, whereas adding- listing machine will give a printed record in the adding operation. There are three kinds-full rank type, half keyboard type and simplified keyboard. In non-listing machines, the result appears in the metre and it will not give printed answers.
In all types, the figures of the keyboard are pressed and the result is known then a particular key is pressed to clear off the metre.
The following are the general types:
1. Printing calculators
2. Key-driven calculators
3. Automatic calculators
4. Rotary calculators
5. Electronic calculators
6. Electronic printing calculators etc.
Printing calculator is like an adding machine which gives the result in printed form.
Key-driven calculator is a non-listing machine, which gives the result on the metre. Automatic calculator is run electrically and gives the result on the metre.
Rotary calculator is a machine which does all the functions of arithmetic.
Electronic calculator is the latest development. This machine will perform calculations in a thousand part of a second and some machines will display the result on a small screen, as in a television set. Electronic printing machine in addition to the above, will also give printed result.
Chief Advantages of Accounting Machine
1. Errors in operation are minimized.
2. Working time is saved.
3. Mental strain is reduced.
4. Machines are handy-portable.
5. They are simple in operation.
6. They give quick result.
7. They give accurate result.
8. The labour cost is reduced.
Even though the machines are costly, they simplify the work and save time. In the long run it is a great advantage. Almost all big concerns use these calculating machines with great advantage. The general types of machines are comptometers, duplex adding, calculating machine, etc.
A variety of calculators are available in the market. They contribute to efficiency and remove the tedium of calculations. Hence calculators have become very popular.
They are useful for multiplication, division, addition and subtraction; calculation of discount, interest, wages etc. The calculators help to reduce human labour in arithmetical calculations. To en- is human. Mistakes may occur, when dealing with figures. The chances of these mistakes are completely removed by the calculators. These machines are quick in action.
4. Accounting Machine
The accounting machine is similar to a typewriting machine. These machines have become popular in use. These machines are used for posting of accounts. Ledger posting, journals, cash receipts, records of invoice, payments, cash book etc. can be made by these appliances.
These accounting machines are able to perform different sets of accounting operation. These machines are a combination of typewriter and calculating machine. They give not only printed records, but also do automatic calculation. At one operation, this machine can make a number of copies of a document by means of carbons.
Advantages of Machines
1. Greater speed is possible than in human operation.
2. The accounting result is more accurate, neat and reliable than that of manual accounting.
3. They have human labour.
4. Ledgers are automatically balanced.
5. Monotony of human work is eliminated.
6. Work is up-to-date and posting of personal accounts is done in time. Therefore collection of dues can be done in time and thus bad debts can be reduced.
7. Overtime work to the staff can be reduced.
8. They give reliable data.
9. Junior clerks, after a little training, can work on the machines. 10. Mental strain in calculation is reduced.
Disadvantages of Machines
1. Cost of machines is high.
2. Repairing charges are high.
3. Electricity failure will bring to a standstill the work of accounting department.
4. When human labour is cheap, the machines are not popular.
5. It is possible that loose leaves of accounting documents are stolen or misplaced.
5. Recorder Machine
It is useful in modern accounting and record keeping. The photographic method is used and it is known as microphotograph. It is accurate and has not very high speed. It can take 2,500 copies at a time, here a camera is used inside the machine.
6. Book Keeping Machine
Entries in the accounts books are made and ledgers are prepared and quick preparation of final account is possible. There will be no mistakes.
7. Time Recording Clock
This is a machine, which is used advantageously in big concerns, where hundreds of thousands of workers are employed. They are just like clocks. Each worker will be given a card which contains his name, address, section where he is attached, etc.
When the worker enters the factory or leaves the factory, he inserts his card in the clock, which prints the time and date on the card. Thus it will help to show the arrival time as well as departure time from the factory. This card can be treated as attendance of the employees. On the basis of the cards, wages can be calculated.
8. Card Punching Machines
This is a machine usually used in factories and workshops. Separate cards have been used for each piece of information. The machine will record the information by means of punched holes on the cards. Each hole has a code number indicating the significance of the punch.
Each card, at the top, is printed with date, department, value, quantity, etc. The punching is done either by hand or electric power. Special arrangement of cards is designed for each job.
The advantages are:
1. Permanent and unaltered record.
2. Accurate record etc.
9. Cash Register
It is a mechanical appliance for recording and checking cash receipts. It can be much useful in a concern where many payments are received, as in the case of a retail shop. The amount paid by the customers is shown on the dial and it is also at once printed on a sheet.
Some of the latest cash registers will issue receipts to the customers and at the same time total the amount received. The chief cashier will be at ease to check the cash with the cash receipts and the management will have effective control over the cash receipts. This mechanical device simplifies the jobs of a cashier to a great extent and also reduces the errors and defalcation.
10. Small Coin Counting Machine
Small coins can be counted by this machine. It is like a box and there are many trays according to the types of coins. In the first or the top tray there is only one hole. By this hole all the small coins will go down. Big coins remain at the top. The trays are arranged one below the other.
Thus the coin sorter is a device which sorts out coins of different denominations, in different trays, meant for them. Coin counter will count the changes. Both these help the cashier and ease his job.
These are usefully adopted in banks, railways and other big concerns where cash dealings are numerous. Coin changing machine will automatically tender the changes correctly to parties or customers.
11. Cheque Writing Machine
In large concerns, where numerous cheque have to be issued, the cheque writing machine is of great help and safety-safety in the respect that there is protection against fraud, because hand-written and type-written cheque are exposed to possible fraud, contents of the cheque and crossing of the cheques, if in ink, are possible to be erased and the encashment is highly possible.
Therefore protection against misuse or forgery is essential. For this purpose, cheque writing machine is used. This machine only writes on the surface of the cheque, but it shreds into fibres of the cheque paper, the shreds being formed under pressure and being then filled with acid proof ink.
Such a machine saves time and protects the drawers. Cheque writing machine is also known as cheque protector. When there are hundreds of cheques to be signed the cheque signing machine can profitably be used.
12. Electronic Computer
Electronic computers are the latest addition to the long list of office machines. These are general purpose machines capable of performing most clerical operations at high speed.
They can handle whole systems of operations change automatically from one operation to another in a desired sequence and even select alternative courses of action on the basis of the data received and the results of previous operations.
It is an electronic device by which data is processed electronically at great speed. It is used to solve business problems through decision-making techniques. It is an electronic device to process data and communicates the results.