The major responsibilities of the teacher are to create, provide conducive environment in the school for optimal learning. It is agreed that education should reach to all children irrespective of their caste, creed and religion.
In order to provide guidance to special learners, it is important to identify them systematically based on teacher observation, academic records, creative activities and performance in mental ability tests. The following strategies are suggested for providing guidance to those students who have learning difficulties
1. To identify the students for guidance purpose.
2. To administer specially designed diagnostic test.
3. To analyse the causes of learning difficulties.
4. To plan cooperatively the approaches for removing the difficulties.
5. To implement the approaches.
6. To evaluate the approaches.
Guiding Backward Students:
After identifying the backward children we should first decide one of three possible ways for the education of backward and children.
(i) Whether they should be given education in a regular class.
(ii) They should be thought in a separate ‘class in the same school.
(iii) They should be provided education in a separate school.
The following principles of learning must be kept in mind while teaching the backward children in classroom:
1. To be taught in simple steps so that they can achieve mastery in their learning at their one pace.
2. Given immediate reinforcement for their success.
3. To be given the opportunity to practise knowledge and skills.
4. To be provided with immediate knowledge of results.
5. Given a variety of stimulation.
Guiding Gifted Students:
The following steps may be followed while guiding the gifted children:
1. Identify the gifted children on the basis of observation of their characteristics.
2. Administer intelligence test.
3. Select the most appropriate approach for catering the gifted children. These approaches are-
(a) Segregation of gifted children and arranging classes exclusively for them.
(b) Acceleration through which the gifted children may be allowed to complete the prescribed course of study in a shorter period.
(c) Enrichment programme suggesting additional books and journals for their study.
Guiding Creative Students:
The teacher in the class and outside the class may encourage the spirit of enquiry in the students. For it, following points should be kept in mind:
1. Full freedom should be provided for coming out with new ideas.
2. Psychological freedom and psychological safety are essential for creative expression.
3. The technique of brainstorming or creative problem solving can be conveniently used in small group of students.
4. They should be given full freedom for the development of their imagination.
5. They should be encouraged to think on the courses and consequences of an action.
6. They should be encouraged to think different approaches and alternatives.