Programmed Learning :
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is an interactive instructional method that uses a computer to present material, track learning, and direct the user to additional material which meets the student’s needs.
It can also be used to describe Internet based instruction through the use of web-pages, web bulletin boards, listservs and newsgroups, video and real audio, graphics, and hands- on applications. Additionally, self-teaching programs on CD-ROM or the emerging DVD round out the group of available forms of CAI.
Programmed learning (PL) is interactive because the individual user actively responds to viewing and assimilating information from a non-interactive medium of instruction (e.g., normal text, filmstrips, television, etc.).
Programmed learning is adaptive because PI are often designed to accommodate individual characteristics of users, such as background knowledge or the pace at which they learn. Programmed instruction (PI), as compared with programmed learning, is concerned only indirectly with what users do.
Rather, programmed instruction refers to the practice of writing programmed materials. It is therefore concerned with what program writers do. It represents the teaching side of the teaching/learning distinction. In contrast, web based instruction uses hypermedia design which focuses on the needs of the student and the way in which he/she desires to access information.
CAI is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place. It is also known as computer-assisted learning (CAL), computer- based education (CBE), and computer-based training (CBT). CBT allows the students to direct his/her own progress.
CAI learning uses a combination of text, graphics, sound and video in the learning process. It is especially useful in distance learning situations. The explosion of the Internet as well as the demand for distance learning has generated great interest and expansion of computer-assisted instruction.
Text forms look like books, workbooks, or kits of instructional sheets. This form includes books with an audiovisual medium (e.g., filmstrip, slides). Information can be recorded on videodisc or videotape, or in combination with other equipment and a variety of media. Teaching machines can be a page holder or a delivery vehicle, anything from simple page turning to complex interactions.
Computer-assisted instruction makes use of multimedia software in the learning process including text, video technology, graphics, sound, and Internet technology. Computer-assisted instruction is heavily used in the growing field of distance education. Traditionally, computer-assisted instruction, like programmed instruction, has been linear in nature. Web based instruction on the other hand is nonlinear.
Instruction using Internet protocol makes use of technological features that traditional computer-assisted education does not, such as hyper linking, synchronous and asynchronous conferencing, real-time audio and video, as well as 3-D virtual reality.