(i) Indemnification of the problem:

The individual when he is faced with a problem tries to understand the exact nature of the problem. It means ‘why is this problem and what this problem is”. As educational research is full of problems, schools it must be taken into account that whether there is the necessity of selecting the problem or not and what are the actual purposes lying behind it. Action research provides solutions of the problems that are easily understood and implemented in actual practice. Any problem taken for research project should be clearly identified.

(ii) Discussion regarding the proposal of action:

The problem taken for study should have a clear understanding of its meaning. Hence it will be easier to find out the solution. When it comes to our mind or experience, it is put into one analysis. Then the other steps related to problem are found out.


(iii) Constructing hypothesis:

After a good deal of thinking and discussion the researcher prepares a plan of action. He selects the solutions coming to his mind. He may do it in a laboratory or in his own group. He goes on trying to out which of one of solutions will be best suitable for the problem.

(iv) Collection of data:

After forming the tentative solution of the problem the researcher has to collect the correct information from the subjects. In this period he will have to establish rapport with them. While collecting the data he has to be conscious about his position. At the time of collecting data he should of low the tools and techniques of research.


All tools and techniques of research are not applicable in collecting data in every situation. This step is very important in research project of collecting accurate information from the respondents.

(v) Presentation of data:

Data can be presented in different ways. For example census findings are presented in bar graphs, or pie graphs, price index is presented in percentages and some are presented in tabular forms.

(vi) Analysis of data:


The data collected are to be discussed at length. So the researchers classify the data for study in two categories; descriptive analysis and statistical analysis. He describes the need, purpose of the data collected by applying various statistical techniques according to the stability and desirability of the results.