1. School Journeys

A school journey or trip is an outdoor lesson. It is the most valuable aid and provides direct experiences to the pupils. The school journeys can supplement and enrich curriculum experiences, as the pupils come in direct contact with reality.

These widen their mental horizon and make them aware of bigger social environment. The school trips provide varied life experiences to the pupils as they plan organise the trips. They come in contact with all shades of people from all walks of life.

The school trips break the monotony of class-room and bring a welcome change in the pupils. However, the educational values of the school trips can be fully realised only when these are properly planned and organised.


The teacher should make the purpose of the trip clear. The pupils may be asked to read the relevant materials from books or gather information about the place to be visited from various sources.

2. Demonstrations

Demonstrations are visualised explanations of important facts, ideas or processes. The children not only see and hear but also see certain actions or perform actions. These are multi-sensory aids to learning. Demonstrations are useful to demonstrate a process or a skill.

These are used when the teacher wants to show how a certain activity or task is to be done. An art teacher may demonstrate how to mix colours, how to fix up paper, how to use brush etc. A drawing teacher demonstrates how certain sketches are to be drawn.


A language teacher may demonstrate the correct pronunciation of a word by showing to the pupils the position of the lips and the tongue.

He may show how a poem is to be demonstrated. A mathematics teacher can demonstrate the steps involved in solving a particular type of problem. A music teacher demonstrates how to play on a musical instrument.

A successful demonstration requires thorough preparation on the part of a teacher. He should play every step and make the needed equipment ready for use. It will be better if the demonstration is rehearsed.

In demonstration the teacher should proceed step by step. He should make sure that everybody can see and hear. Main steps may be written on the black-board. If it is a model or craft work, the product should be shown to the pupils at the end. The teachers should set the tone for good communication. He may ask the students to do some work on the pattern demonstrated.


3. Dramatisation

Dramatisation is often a very lively, interesting and useful aid or technique of teaching. It involves multi-sensory approach to learning. It is very useful in the teaching of history and languages. It is an attempt to transcend the barriers of time and place.

The pupils can be carried back into the remote past and, made to relive the dead past. Historical events are re-enacted. The pupils learn about the customs, manners, traditions and culture of the period dramatised.

The dramatic representation of any historical or social event infuses life into the children. It also teaches voice-culture, intonation and pronunciation. The pupils also get opportunities to plan, organise and enact the events on the stage.


This develops in them confidence, initiative and removes stage fear. It has a great preventive and curative effect as far as emotional adjustment is concerned, the learning takes place best in an emotional situation and dramatisation provides that situation.

Dramatisation to be effective must not be dominated by the teacher. The pupils should be encouraged to come forward and participate. In day-to-day teaching, the teacher can give a dramatic touch to his teaching by facial expressions, modulation of voice, festures or some such natural actions. For example, while teaching King Ashoka, the teacher may speak as if the King Ashoka were speaking.

4. School Exhibits and Displays

An educational exhibit is a planned arrangement of graphic materials, specimens and other related objects for a definite purpose. The school exhibits throw light on obscure, difficult or important topics or themes.


A good exhibit, like a good picture, relates to a central theme. It intends to rebuild scattered ideas and undigested bits of information around a nucleus for proper integration. It provides a concrete background to the abstract ideas and presents matter in a visualised form. Exhibits will be really effective if there is active involvement of maximum number of students.

They should be encouraged to collect, make and exhibit materials. The exhibits should be properly labeled and displayed for effective communication.

For that purpose, tables and a variety of boards-black-board, flannel-board, bulletin board-should be used. The exhibits and displays bring the school into limelight, maintain pupil’s interests and inspire them to achieve better educational standards.