Posts and Telegraphs System:
Postal system came into existence properly in India in the year 1854 with the help of 700 post offices and Department of Posts was created. Telegraph Department was added and it became Posts and Telegraphs Department. It performed both postal services and telegraph services.
In the year 1984, Posts and Telegraphs Department was divided into Postal Department and Telecommunication Department.
Postal work is now being performed by Postal Department of India. Formerly, 1, 44,241 post offices were in urban area and 1, 28,559 post offices were in rural area. There was one post office for ever 5,206 persons and one post office in every 22.16 square kilometer’s on 31st March, 1984. More than 99% of the villages have postal distribution system everyday.
Postal Department provides different types of services to the people. Distribution of letters is the most important service. Except distributing letters inside the country, it also helps to send letters to foreign countries and distributes the letters in proper places which come from foreign countries. Post offices also help to send money through “money order” from one place to another place.
Money order system was first started in 1880. Saving through Postal Savings Bank was started in the year 1882, which now helps to develop the saving habits of the people. Post offices sell National Saving Certificates and implements Postal Life Insurance schemes. Pin Code system consisting of six letters was first started in 1972 to improve the distribution system.
Telegraph and Telephone:
Telecommunication Department provided its telecommunication services after the invention of telegraph and telephone. Telegraph service was started in the year 1851 from Calcutta to Diamond Harbor. Within six years of the invention of the telephone, first telephone service was started in Calcutta during the year 1881-82.
Telegraph and telephone system was very much backward during the time of independence. In the year 1948, there were only 3324 telegraph offices and it rose to 37, 424 in April, 1986. Now we have telegraph services in every metropolitan city, important cities, and towns in a large number of villages.
Telephone services have improved a lot after independence. There were only 321 telephone exchanges in the year 1948, and they increased to 11,480 in the year 1986. Telephone services are now available in all metropolitan cities, towns and 7000 large villages. There has been a significant improvement in establishing link among foreign countries with the development of communication system.
The people who are living in metropolitan cities are now able to establish link with the foreign countries of the world. Except these, telex services and international telex services are now provided.
In the year 1927, first radio service was started under private ownership between two stations. These two stations were nationalized in the year 1930 and the radio service was transformed into Indian Broadcasting Service under the control of the Government. It was again named as All India Radio in the year 1936. Since the year 1957, it has been operating as Akashvani.
In the year 1947, there were only six radio stations and its number increased to 94 in the year 1988. Now 86 percentages of the areas have radio service facilities and 95 percentage of total population are able to get Akashvani services.
Akashvani not only provides entertainment programmes like play and music but it also provides other special programmes like news and other cultural programmes. Special programmes are now being provided by Akashvani for military personnel, women and children, young masses, students and rural people. Two Vivid Bharati centres are providing entertainment programmes from Bombay and Madras. 29 Commercial Broad Casting Services use their 10 percentage of their total programme hours for advertisement.
Wireless system has been developed in India. Military personnel and police mainly use this wireless system. The importance of wireless increases during the period of political or economic crisis.
Television service was started on an experimental basis first time in Delhi on 15th September, 1959. Second television centre was started in Bombay in 1972. Five relay centres and 11 independent centres were started in 1986. Near about 70 percentage of the total population were able to see television in the year 1986. The television system of India is known as Doordarshan.
Television provides us news, entertainment programmes and other educational programmes. As it is visible and audible, it creates more impact on the people and it is known as an important medium of communication.
The development of newspapers in India is very much satisfactory. There are now 36 newspapers which have been publishing for the last 100 years. The newspaper “The Bombay Samachar published in Gujarat is the first newspaper of India. Towards the last of the year 1986, there were 26,614 newspapers registered under “The Registrar of Newspapers”. Newspapers are published from every State and Union Territory except Arunachal Pradesh and Lakshadweep. Newspapers are more published from Uttar Pradesh.
Newspapers in India are published in 92 languages. Maximum newspapers are published in Hindi language. Next to Hindi, newspapers are published more in English.
Four news agencies are operating in India. These are Press Trust of India (PTI), United News of India (UNI), Samacfiar Varity and Hindustan Samachar.