It is an acute infectious disease caused by a specific microbe. It attacks the mucous membrane of the throat, larynx and the nasal cavities with a local membrane formation.
Mode of Transmission:
There is no age bar for diphtheria and the incidence is greatest in childhood. It very often occurs in schools where children live in close contact with each other and where there is overcrowding and indifferent sanitation.
Especially during the colder months in autumn and winter breaks out in an epidemic form. It is more common in cold and temperate climates than in the tropics. At the time of coughing, sneezing, spitting and speaking the microbe is disseminated. Clothing and other articles contaminated by a patient retain the infection for a long “me,
The incubation period is from 2 to 5 days.
The initial symptoms may be very slight and the disease develops gradually or the onset may be quite sudden. In the Sinning, there is a little rise of temperature and may be a little soreness of the throat.
In order to detect the preset of the disease at a very early stage, the throat of every chaff suffering from indefinite symptoms should be carefully mined. The loss of appetite, peevishness, headache and pay in the limbs are the common symptoms of the disease.
So, throat is the more prominent symptom the mucous meftbrane of the throat and tonsils becomes red and inflame and soon gets covered with a thin grayish white film which is called the false membrane. It may extend to the so palate and in to the nasal cavity.
There will be difficult, in swallowing and terrific vomiting tendency. The men brain remains for a week, but by the early specific treatment it disappears soon.
The diphtheria is such a dangerous disease that it’s curt alone is not sufficient. It must be prevented. The med at science has been able to devise as substance which were injected produces a complete protection against diphtheria this substance is known as Diphtheria Toxic. It can be injected in to any child over the age of one year ant causes no reaction or pain. It is able to infect any one it the same room or breathing the same air and can easily spread among school children. So every school going chime should have the protective inoculation.
In order to prevent dangerous complications and save the life of the patient the specific treatment at a very early stage is needed. So it is imperative to diagnose to disease as soon as possible as the delay of a few hours flab turn the scales against the patient.
For this reason in eve case of illness in children when the symptoms are indefinite throat should be carefully examined and the early commitment of the treatment would be of great benefit. The pate should be isolated and put to bed and prevented undergoing the least exertion.
The diet should be liquid, Ink glucose etc, Nasal feeding sometimes in necessary if the patient is unable to swallow. Diphtheria antitoxin is sheet anchor in the treatment of cases. It is given in large doses depending upon the severity of the case. The nose and throat discharges, should be promptly disposed of by burning.
All articles used by the patient should be disinfected, at the end of illness the room should be disinfected and thoroughly ventilated. Follow up of cases is important to detect the development.