Calcium and phosphorus make strong bones and teeth and vitamin D is essential for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus.
Therefore, deficiency of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in the body leads to poor bone formation. In growing children and nursing mothers, the chances of the deficiency of calcium and phosphorus are more as their requirement of these minerals is more. Bones of the persons having these deficiencies are more prone to facture.
As a result of deficiency of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D, amount of calcium phosphate becomes very low and a bone fails to become rigid and consequently bend under the weight of the body.
Deficiency of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D causes a disease called RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults.
Symptoms of these diseases are:
(i) Bone deformities such as bow legs, pigeon chest
(ii) Softness and pain in bones
(iii) Susceptibility to fracture
(iv) Loss of teeth enamel
Ricket can be prevented by exposing the child to sunlight and by giving sufficient quantities of milk and cod-liver oil. Milk and cod-liver oil are rich in calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. Exposure to sunlight helps in the formation of vitamin D in the skin.