Male Flowers

The male flowers consist of stamens or microsporophylls. These are arranged in compact strobili known as male cone.

These are borne at the apex of the plant. The microsporophylls are arranged in acropetal succession, i.e. the youngest sporophyll at the top and oldest one is at the base of axis. Microsporophyll is a scale-like structure measuring about 3-5 cm long and 12-23 mm wide.

It is narrow below and broad above. Its sterile apex is extended into a long narrow appendage called apophysis.


One more cones may grow simultaneously at the growing point. The terminal and basal microsporophyll’s are sterile, while the remaining ones bear microsporagia (Pollen sacs) on their abaxial (lower) surface grouped into sori.

Each sorus contains usually 2-6 micro sporangia. The microsporangium is protected by multi layered jacket with a thickened epidermis and a thin innermost tapetum. The sporangium contains numerous microspore mother cells which divide meiotic ally to produce a large number of haploid microspores or pollen grains.

Female Flowers

It consists of carpals or megasporophylls. The plant bears a rosette of carpals or megasporophylls near its apex which are loosely arranged in acropetal succession. The megasporophyll is a leaf-like pinnate structure, 15-20 cm long, brown in color.


It remains covered with hairs. The upper part of each megasporophyll is pinnately dissected into several segments. The megasporophyll bears 1-5 pairs of ovules or mega sporangia arranged on either side of its margin. The ovules are orthotropous, oval in shape. The ovules are large in size, measuring up to 6 x 4 cm in C. circinalis.