How does an ion differ from an atom ?

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When an atom gains one or more electrons, a negatively charged ion is formed. Positively charged ion is called cation, and the negatively charged ion is called anion. Thus, A cation (positively charged ion) is formed when an atom loses one or more electrons.

And,

An anion (negatively charged ion) is formed when an atom gains one or more electrons.

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In general,

When sodium atom (Na) loses one electron, sodium ion (Na+) is formed. Sodium ion (Na+) is positively charged. The Na+ ion is a cation.

Na → Na+ + e

When chlorine (Cl) gains one electron, a chloride ion (Cl) is negatively charged. The Cl is an anion.

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Cl + e → Cl

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