This level of management consists of deputy heads of departments and sectional officers such as plant manager, area sales manager or branch manager, office manager, chief accountant, purchase officer, etc. These executives serve as a means of coordination between top manage­ment and operating management.

According to Marry C. Niles, “they often share in the difficulties of their superiors in arriving at decisions and they necessarily take part in the efforts of their subordinates to carry out policies. They transmit orders, decisions and guidance downwards; they also take problems, difficulties, and suggestions upward.

The lines of communication meet in them”. They are involved less in physical activity and more in paper work and meetings than the operating mana­gers. While top management is concerned with conceptual thinking middle management deals with operations.

The middle management usually performs the following functions:


1. To interpret and explain the policies framed by top management.

2. To compile and issue detailed instructions regarding operations.

3. To maintain close contacts with operating results so as to evaluate performance.

4. To participate in operating decisions.


5. To cooperate among themselves so as to integrate or coordinate various parts of a division or a department.

6. To motivate supervisory personnel to work for organizational goals.

7. To develop and train supervisory and operative personnel.