What are the different types of partners in a partnership firm ?


There are various types of partners in a partnership firm. They are as follows:

Active Partner:

Partner who takes an active part in the management of the business is called active partner. He may also be called ‘actual’ or ‘ostensible’ partner. He is an agent of the other partners in the ordinary course of business of the firm and considered a full fledged partner in the real sense of the term.


Sleeping or Dormant Partner:

A sleeping or dormant partner is one who does not take any active part in the management of the business. He contributes capital and shares the profits which is usually less than that of the active partners. He is liable for all the de of the firm but his relationship with the firm is not disclosed to the general public.

Nominal Partner:

A partner who simply lends his name to the firm is called nominal partner. He neither contributes any capital nor shares in the profits or take part the management of the business. But he is liable to third parties like other partners. A nominal partner must be distinguished from the sleeping partner. While the nominal partner is known to the outsiders and does not share in the profits, the sleeping partner shares in the profit a his relationship is kept secret.


Partner in Profits:

A partner who shares in the profits only without being liable of the losses is known as partner in profits. He does not take part in the management of the business but he is liable to third parties for all the debts of the firm.


When a stranger shares the profits derived from the firm by a partner he is regarded as a sub-partner. A sub-partner is in no way connected with the firm or he not a partner of the firm. He is simply a partners’ partner. Therefore, he has no rights again the firm nor he is liable for the debts of the firm. He only shares profits from a partner.


Partner by Estoppel or Holding out:

When a partner is not a partner but represent to the outside world that he is a partner in a firm, he is stopped or prevented from denying the truth. He is considered as a partner in the eyes of law. Similarly, if a person is declared i be a partner by a partner of a firm and such person remained silent without denying it, he also considered a partner by holding out. Thus, such persons are liable to outsiders i partners on the principle of estoppel or holding out because on faith of their representation action outsiders have granted credit to the firm.

Minor Partner:

Partnership arises from contract and a minor is not competent to enter into contract. Therefore, strictly speaking, a minor cannot be a full-fledged partners. But with the consent of all the partners he can be admitted into partnership for benefits only. He is not personally liable to third parties for the debts of the firm, on attaining majority, if he continues as a partner, his liability will become unlimited with effect from the date of hi original admission into the firm.


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