Stem of Zea mays
1. Cuticle is more on the wall of epidermal cells.
2. Hypodermis is present and consists of 2 to 3 layers of sclerenchyma.
3. Chlorophyllous layer in the ground tissue and patches of sclerenchyma are not seen.
4. Xylem is ‘Y’ shaped with metaxylems consisting of two wide pitted vessels making the arms of ‘Y’. Protoxylem elements are generally present at the base of ‘Y’.
5. Phloem elements are present between the forked arms of the ‘Y’ shaped xylem.
6. Few vascular bundles are embedded in the hypodermis.
Stem canna stem
1. Cuticle is less on the wall of epidermal cells in comparison to that of maize.
2. No such hypodermis is seen. However, 2 to 3 layers compactly arranged parenchyma are found and this may be considered as hypodermis.
3. Chlorophyllous layer and patches of sclerenchyma are present.
4. There is a single metaxylem vessel which is surrounded by protoxylem elements.
5. Phloem elements surrounds the xylem element and found on the outer part of the vascular bundle.
6. There is no such attachment of vascular bundle to hypodermis is seen. However, few vascular bundles are embedded in the sclerenchyma layer present in the ground tissue.