(i) The hypodermis is sclerenchymatous and sometimes with sclerenchyma patches or embedded vascular bundles in the hypodermis.

(ii) There is no distinc­tion into general cor­tex, endodermis, peri­cycle and stelar re­gion. The whole mass of tissue constitutes the ground tissue.

(iii) The vascular bundles are scattered and more towards periphery than the centre

(iv) Each vascular bundle is closed one due to lack of cambium.


(v) The vascular bundle has either a sclerenchymatous bundle sheath or bundle cap.

(vi) Phloem parenchyma is absent.

(vii) Pith is absent.