According to European federation of Biotechnology (1978) definition goes as follows.

“Biotechnology makes it possible, through an integrated application of knowledge and techniques of biochemistry, microbiology, genetics and chemical engineering to draw benefit at the technological level, from the properties and capacities of microorganisms and cell cultures. Biotechnology offers possibility of producing from widely available resources, substances and compounds essential to life and the greater well-being of human being”. So biotechnology is an area of multidisciplinary science involving a variety of distinct subjects where living organisms or their useful pars are put into effective use to cater to the welfare of humanity.

Biotechnology is an old and useful art. Alcohol from the fermented plant juices was the first product of biotechnology. So the microbes were employed in a number of processes like preparation of bread, yoghurt, butter, milk, curd, cheese, vinegar etc. but modern biotechnology enables and organism to produce a totally new product which the organism does not or can not produce in its normal course of life. Since we are able to engineer a new genetic potential in an organism, this technology is also called genetic engineering. Basic areas of interest which stimulate the progress of modern biotechnology are—

Recombinant DNA manipulation – genetic engineering


Plant and animal tissue culture techniques

Waste treatment

Nitrogen fixation



Utilization of enzymes and biocatalytes


Fermentation etc.