Dicot Stem:

1. The outermost layer is called epidermis; the outer wall is covered with thick cuticle. The epidermis contains multicellular hairs and stomata here and there.

2. Cortex is differentiated into hypodermis, general cortex and endodermis.Hypodermis is collenchymatous, general cortex is parenchymatous and often contains starch grains. Casparian strips and passage cells are absent in endodermis.

3. Pericycle is multilayered. It is composed of sclerenchyma or parenchyma or both.


4. Vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral and open. Cambium is present between xylem and phloem.

5. Xylem is endarch.

6. Pith is large.

Dicot Root:


1. The outermost layer is called epiblema. It consists of thin-walled cells and containing intercellular hairs. Stomata and cuticle are absent.

2. Cortex is differentiated into general cortex and endodermis.

3. Pericycle is singlelayered. It is composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. It gives rise to lateral roots and secondary meristems.

4. Vascular bundles are radial. Cambium is absent in primary structure .


5. Xylem is exarch.

6. Pith is small or absent.