Robert Owen (1771-1858) biography:

Robert Owen was considered to be the father of cooperative movement. He was an entrepreneur, social reformer and a forerunner of personnel management. During his period he introduced reforms in his factory by reducing the working hours to 10 and refused to employ children below the age 10.

His efforts to organize cooperative colonies were the best example of his efforts to improve the living conditions of workers. He had also propounded the theory ‘Doctrine of circumstance’ under which he insisted co-employers to improve facilities to workers. Thus Robert Owen became the pioneer among management thinkers.